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Puppy Socialization and Immunization

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Puppy Socialization
and Immunization

Below is an excerpt from my book Puppy Socialization: An Insider’s Guide to Dog Behavioral Fitness which discusses Puppy Socialization and Immunization.

You are probably conflicted because your vet has said not to take your puppy outside until he has completed all his vaccines.  So when you talk to me and I say that if you wait, the probability that your puppy will have behavior problems as an adult dog is greater, you’re faced with a dilemma – do you listen to your vet or do you listen to me?  Your vet studied veterinary medicine and has a degree in veterinary medicine.  I studied and continue to study dog behavior and also am a certified dog behavior consultant.  And you talked to your vet first, so what you learned, you learned on a clean slate, so to speak, and now you talk to me who tells you something completely different.  It’s difficult to erase what you learn and replace it with something else.  I get it.  It’s hard for your dog, too, to erase what he has learned – or not learned – and replace it with a different thought process.  The neural pathways to learning in his brain have been formed, and it’s easier for him to make new ones than to change ones that are already there.

You have a difficult decision to make – you have faith in your vet, but you don’t know me.  Let me assure you that I am not alone.  In fact, when I was researching my Puppy Socialization book, I got my information from many sources including directly from the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists (see more below).   Veterinary Behaviorists are veterinarians who have pass additional tests and are certified on animal behavior.

I did extensive research for my book, going all the way back to the first study on dog developmental periods in the 1950s by Scott and Fuller.  Their conclusion – which has been slightly modified but never has been refuted – was that puppies have 16 weeks before the “socialization window” closes, meaning that anything they learn after 16 weeks will be more difficult and sometimes their behavior will be impossible to change.

For a further explanation, please continue reading this chapter from my Puppy Socialization book which describes how puppy socialization and immunization can coexist, and then call me if you have any questions.

“But My Vet Says I Shouldn’t Take
My Puppy Outside
Until He’s Had All His Shots”

Your veterinarian is likely your first animal care professional you visit after the breeder or rescue, and it is essential for your puppy to be examined medically and then vaccinated.  While you are at  your vet’s office, it is logical to ask him or her about behavior issues with puppies – and there are a lot of them!

I have the utmost respect and admiration for veterinarians.  They try to be helpful by giving advice similar to what worked for their personal dogs or by giving advice on what they think may work.  Most vets when they are in vet school study medicine, not behavior.  There are only 46 Certified Veterinary Behaviorists in the US as compared to 102,744 veterinarians.  It seems logical that some vets refer to other dog professionals because they realize it’s out of their field of expertise.  (Yay, I like these vets!)

At the same time, many veterinarians recommend not taking your puppy into the real world until he’s had all his shots – and those shots are not finished until he is four months old, which is past the important social and environmental exposure periods we have been talking about.  Your vet is interested in your dog from a medical standpoint, and I am interested in him from a behavioral standpoint.  It is crucial to take him outdoors before he has had all his shots so he can become acclimated to the sights, sounds, places, situations, and smells in his neighborhood.  As has been demonstrated first by Scott and Fuller and reiterated by many other behaviorists and clinicians, waiting until your puppy has completed his vaccines to take him outdoors makes it difficult for him to accept new situations in his environment.   Because of this, many vets are changing their opinions and have begun to work in conjunction with trainers to offer classes for puppies.

The American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior in 2003 recognized that more puppies are euthanized for behavior issues than medical ones and officially changed its position, saying that, “The primary and most important time for puppy socialization is the first three months of life….  It should be the standard of care for puppies to receive such socialization before they are fully vaccinated.”   The entire AVSAB position statement appears here.  http://tinyurl.com/q3u6mpz

So the times, they are a changin’, and veterinary schools and especially veterinary conferences are beginning to reflect the change.  I looked at the curriculum for several veterinary colleges, and there were only one or two classes in their curriculum dealing with behavior out of dozens and dozens of classes dealing not only with veterinary science but also everything from veterinary legal issues to sea turtles.  I was delighted to discover that at the Wild West Veterinary Conference in October 2013, there were 15 seminars relating to behavior out of 82 total seminars.  The 2014 Tufts Veterinary Conference on the Genetic Basis for Canine Behavior was held in conjunction with the International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants – yippee!  This is a huge leap forward.

True story – I was speaking with a veterinary student, and she said something that had never crossed my mind.  Vet school is four years.  It’s always been four years.  It’s much more difficult to become a veterinarian than to become a human doctor because in four years, students have to learn about anatomy, physiology, surgical procedures, nutrition, and much more for many different species of animals including farm animals, wildlife, and companion animals.  Phew!  The amount that vet students (and veterinarians) have to learn is exponentially greater than just a few years ago, not only in school but also in keeping up with medical advancements in journals and conferences.  Is it any wonder that most veterinarians keep up with current knowledge in their chosen field – veterinary medicine – rather than behavior?

Dr. R.K. Anderson, DVM, Diplomat, American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and Diplomat of American College of Veterinary Behaviorists was the first veterinary behaviorist to advocate that puppies should become acclimated to the outside world after owners take them home.  Dr. Anderson was instrumental in advocating puppy classes, and he wrote a letter to other veterinarians, which appears below:

TO: My Colleagues in Veterinary Medicine:
Common questions I receive from puppy owners, dog trainers and veterinarians concern: 1) what is the most favorable age or period of time when puppies learn best? 2) what are the health implications of my advice that veterinarians and trainers should offer socialization programs for puppies starting at 8 to 9 weeks of age.

Puppies begin learning at birth and their brains appear to be particularly responsive to learning and retaining experiences that are encountered during the first 13 to 16 weeks after birth. This means that breeders, new puppy owners, veterinarians, trainers and behaviorists have a responsibility to assist in providing these learning/socialization experiences with other puppies/dogs, with children/adults and with various environmental situations during this optimal period from birth to 16 weeks.

Many veterinarians are making this early socialization and learning program part of a total wellness plan for breeders and new owners of puppies during the first 16 weeks of a puppy’s life — the first 7-8 weeks with the breeder and the next 8 weeks with the new owners. This socialization program should enroll puppies from 8 to 12 weeks of age as a key part of any preventive medicine program to improve the bond between pets and their people and keep dogs as valued members of the family for 12 to 18 years.

To take full advantage of this early special learning period, many veterinarians recommend that new owners take their puppies to puppy socialization classes, beginning at 8 to 9 weeks of age. At this age they should have (and can be required to have) received a minimum of their first series of vaccines for protection against infectious diseases. This provides the basis for increasing immunity by further repeated exposure to these antigens either through natural exposure in small doses or artificial exposure with vaccines during the next 8 to 12 weeks. In addition the owner and people offering puppy socialization should take precautions to have the environment and the participating puppies as free of natural exposure as possible by good hygiene and caring by careful instructors and owners.

Experience and epidemiologic data support the relative safety and lack of transmission of disease in these puppy socialization classes over the past 10 years in many parts of the United States. In fact; the risk of a dog dying because of infection with distemper or parvo disease is far less than the much higher risk of a dog dying (euthanasia) because of a behavior problem. Many veterinarians are now offering new puppy owners puppy socialization classes in their hospitals or nearby training facilities in conjunction with trainers and behaviorists because they want socialization and training to be very important parts of a wellness plan for every puppy. We need to recognize that this special sensitive period for learning is the best opportunity we have to influence behavior for dogs and the most important and longest lasting part of a total wellness plan.

Are there risks? Yes. But 10 years of good experience and data, with few exceptions, offers veterinarians the opportunity to generally recommend early socialization and training classes, beginning when puppies are 8 to 9 weeks of age. However, we always follow a veterinarian’s professional judgment, in individual cases or situations, where special circumstances warrant further immunization for a special puppy before starting such classes. During any period of delay for puppy classes, owners should begin a program of socialization with children and adults, outside their family, to take advantage of this special period in a puppy’s life.

If there are further questions, veterinarians may call me at 651-644-7400 for discussion and clarification.  [Sadly, Dr. Anderson died in 2012.]

Robert K. Anderson DVM
Diplomate ACVB and ACVPM
Professor and Director Emeritus, Animal Behavior Clinic and
Center to Study Human/Animal Relationships and Environments
University of Minnesota

 If your veterinarian advocates isolation of your puppy until he has completed his puppy vaccines, please show them Dr. Anderson’s letter and AVSAB’s position.

This was an excerpt from my book Puppy Socialization – An Insider’s Guide to Dog Behavioral Fitness. There are hundreds of suggestions on puppy socialization both for the breeder and the pet parent.

Want More information on Why Puppy Socialization, Habituation and Enrichment are Important

Click here to purchase the book
in paperback or Kindle from Amazon.

Click here for the Table of Contents.

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Puppy Enrichment

Puppy Enrichment

puppy enrichment - dog with chair on its side

One way to Puppy Enrichment!

Here are just a few puppy socialization and enrichment suggestions from my book.

Food

  • Hide food in boxes of all shapes and sizes.
  • Put his food in food dispensing puzzle toys.

Sensory

  • Take you cushions off the sofa. Or stack them up.
  • Rearrange the chairs from your dining room table

Social

  • Invite some puppies and dogs over for a puppy party. Make sure they are healthy, vaccinated, and like puppies.
  • Invite some people over for a puppy party. Make sure they are healthy and vaccinated – just kidding!

Novel Items

  • Give him different toys of different textures to play with.
  • Put a laundry basket on its side for him to go in and out.

In Your Yard

puppy enrichment in yard

Puppy Enrichment In Your Yard!

  • Landscaping of different heights and textures
  • Floating toys, frozen treats, or ice cubes in a wading pool that he can go diving for

Outside your Yard

  • Several years ago, I was looking through a catalogue for dog supplies and burst out laughing because there was a puppy stroller! How ridiculous. Now I don’t think it’s so ridiculous. In fact, it’s my favorite thing to introduce your puppy to many things safely.
  • Take him for a ride in the car.

This was an excerpt from my book Puppy Socialization – An Insider’s Guide to Dog Behavioral Fitness. There are hundreds of suggestions on puppy socialization both for the breeder and the pet parent.

Want More information on puppy enrichment

Click here to purchase the book
in paperback or Kindle from Amazon.

Click here for a Table of Contents.

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Thanks for visiting Puppy Enrichment!

History of Puppy Socialization

History of Puppy Socialization

purebred english Bulldog in glasses and book

I’m learnin’ the History of Puppy Socialization!

John Paul Scott and John L. Fuller, in their 13-year study begin­ning in the 1950s at Bar Har­bor, Maine, sum­ma­rized in the clas­sic book Genet­ics and the Social Behav­ior of the Dog (1965), set out to answer the ques­tion of what influ­ence, if any, hered­ity had on behav­ior.  Although they wanted to under­stand human behav­ior, they said, “Any­one who wishes to under­stand a human behav­ior trait or hered­i­tary dis­ease can usu­ally find the cor­re­spond­ing con­di­tion in dogs with very lit­tle effort.”

One of their dis­cov­er­ies was that there were cer­tain peri­ods in a puppy’s early life where cer­tain events must take place, for exam­ple, con­tact with humans or expo­sure to other dogs.  If those events did not take place, then that oppor­tu­nity was lost, and the puppy would not develop to its fullest poten­tial.  Those were called “crit­i­cal periods.”

Clarence Pfaf­fen­berger worked with the Guide Dogs for The Blind and later worked with Scott and Fuller.  His book The New Knowl­edge of Dog Behav­ior (1963) chron­i­cles his research on how to find the ideal guide dog puppy.  He applied their work to his own and came up with addi­tional findings.

In the 1960s, the US Army was try­ing to breed a dog that was genet­i­cally and behav­iorally sound for use in the mil­i­tary.  It was called The Bio-Sensor Project” but was later changed to “Super­dog.”  Dr. Michael W. Fox was involved in this project. In Under­stand­ing Your Dog, Dr. Fox talks about “how envi­ron­men­tal influ­ences early in life can have pro­found and endur­ing effects on behavior.”

Dr. Car­men Battaglia, although not a par­tic­i­pant in the Bio-Sensor project, came up with a series of han­dling exer­cises based on Dr. Fox’s work which he now calls “Devel­op­ing High Achiev­ers,” for­merly known as “Early Neu­ro­log­i­cal Stimulation.”

He came up with a series of five exercises:

  • Tac­ti­cal stim­u­la­tion (between toes)
  • Head held erect
  • Head pointed down
  • Supine posi­tion
  • Ther­mal stimulation

If these exer­cises are done cor­rectly, pup­pies gen­er­ally are more behav­iorally sound than if they are not done and seem to have a ben­e­fi­cial effect on the puppy’s men­tal and emo­tional devel­op­ment although there have not been any sci­en­tific tests to prove this.

The next devel­op­ment in puppy social­iza­tion came from Dr. Ian Dun­bar who both researched pup­pies and popularized what are now com­mon­place – puppy classes.  These classes help pup­pies learn about play­ing and dog body lan­guage, BUT they are not a free-for-all where pup­pies can run around and do what­ever they want.

This was an excerpt from my book Puppy Socialization – An Insider’s Guide to Dog Behavioral Fitness. There are hundreds of suggestions on puppy socialization both for the breeder and the pet parent.

Want More information on the history of puppy socialization

Click here to purchase the book
in paperback or Kindle from Amazon.

Click here for the Table of Contents.

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Thanks for visiting the History of Puppy Socialization!



Why Puppy Socialization, Habituation and Enrichment are Important

Why Puppy Socialization, Habituation and Enrichment are Important

 

four little puppies in arms waiting to learn Why Puppy Socialization, Habituation and Enrichment are Important

Newborn Puppies!

When a puppy is born, he does not know that he is a dog.  It must be learned through the process we call pri­mary social­iza­tion.  He must also learn how to inter­act with humans and other ani­mals and also to be com­fort­able in his environment.  That’s why puppy socialization, habituation, and enrichment are important while he is a puppy.

Puppy social­iza­tion (interacting with canines and other species) and habit­u­a­tion  (by environmental enrichment and expos­ing pup­pies to new sit­u­a­tions and their adapt­ing to it before puberty) are impor­tant because pup­pies who are not well social­ized and habit­u­ated before 16 weeks old will not reach their full poten­tial as adult dogs, the ulti­mate result being that pup­pies will not grow up to be a behav­iorally fit dogs.

I work with a lot of rescued and adopted dogs.  Many times their owners say that their dog has been abused since it acts so fearful or aggressive in novel situations.  That may be true, but another possibility is that their dog did not go through proper socialization when it was a puppy.

There are cer­tain peri­ods in a dog’s life which are sen­si­tive peri­ods, dur­ing which a lit­tle learn­ing goes a long way, and that learn­ing influ­ences his future behav­ior with both ben­e­fi­cial and dam­ag­ing effects.  We are con­cen­trat­ing on that learn­ing here.

A dog’s ulti­mate tem­pera­ment is deter­mined by his genes and how he is raised.   Breed­ers can con­trol whether they want to tem­pera­ment to be a part of their breed­ing pro­gram.  How both breed­ers and own­ers raise the pup­pies for the first 16 weeks of their lives has a tremen­dous influ­ence on whether the pup­pies will become well-adjusted and behav­iorally fit adult dogs because pup­pies are, essen­tially, a clean slate.  The small amounts of time in giv­ing pup­pies pos­i­tive early learn­ing expe­ri­ences will influ­ence and will have a dra­matic impact later on.

How pup­pies act as adults is determined by

  • The tem­pera­ment of the dam/mother
  • How the dam acts towards peo­ple, events, and other dogs
  • How peo­ple inter­act with the puppy
  • The age at which the puppy is sep­a­rated from its mother and litter
  • How many peo­ple, places, events, sounds, sights, and loca­tions thepuppy has been intro­duced to before 16 weeks.

If a puppy is not does not have proper social­iza­tion and habit­u­a­tion, it will never reach its poten­tial and will likely be

  • Shy or timid
  • Fear­ful of any­thing new, both peo­ple and events
  • Aggres­sive
  • Unable to relate or com­mu­ni­cate with other dogs
  • Med­ically unsound (Since he is in a state of stress and anx­i­ety, his body will not have the energy to fight off illnesses)

This was an excerpt from my book Puppy Socialization – An Insider’s Guide to Dog Behavioral Fitness. There are hundreds of suggestions on puppy socialization both for the breeder and the pet parent.

Want More information on Why Puppy Socialization, Habituation and Enrichment are Important

Click here to purchase the book
in paperback or Kindle from Amazon.

Click here for the Table of Contents.

thanks for visiting Why Puppy Socialization, Habituation and Enrichment are Important

Thanks for visiting Why Puppy Socialization, Habituation and Enrichment are Important!

What is Puppy Socialization?

What is Puppy Socialization?

 

Sharpei puppy with milk bottle for puppy socialization

What is Puppy Socialization?

The term “social­iza­tion” has sev­eral def­i­n­i­tions depend­ing on whom you are tak­ing to and what that person’s back­ground is.

When dog own­ers speak about “social­iza­tion,” they gen­er­ally mean they want their puppy to get along with peo­ple and other dogs.

Dog train­ers along with some cer­ti­fied ani­mal behav­ior­ists and vet­eri­nary behav­ior­ists have a dif­fer­ent def­i­n­i­tion of social­iza­tion which encom­passes expo­sure to dif­fer­ent peo­ple, ani­mals, loca­tions, and stim­uli includ­ing all the five senses.

The def­i­n­i­tion of “social­iza­tion” for ani­mal behav­ior­ists is how an ani­mal learns to inter­act socially with ani­mals of its own species.

Social­iz­ing” is ani­mal to ani­mal, two liv­ing beings.  How­ever, in the realm of dog­dom, the terms “social­iz­ing” and “habit­u­at­ing” have been lumped together under the term “social­iza­tion” for such a long time that it’s dif­fi­cult for many of us to sep­a­rate them now – we are using the terms col­lo­qui­ally even though our use is tech­ni­cally incor­rect.  I think where the over­lap stemmed from is that Scott and Fuller said that three to twelve weeks is a crit­i­cal social­iza­tion period.  They were talk­ing about puppy socialization and dogs.

Later research was done on whether habit­u­a­tion to the envi­ron­ment needed to occur dur­ing the same period.  In sev­eral sub­se­quent arti­cles by many authors, both the terms of “social­iza­tion” and “habit­u­a­tion” were used sep­a­rately.  At some point, the terms seemed to have mor­phed together so that “social­iza­tion” included habit­u­a­tion (which is another term hav­ing sev­eral mean­ings depend­ing on the source; but for our pur­poses here, it means get­ting used to something).

To fur­ther muddy the waters, many peo­ple con­fuse “social­iza­tion” with “behav­ior mod­i­fi­ca­tion.”  The time for social­iza­tion is the intro­duc­tion such as meet­ing another dog, see­ing a per­son with a beard, etc. hap­pens while he is a puppy with empha­sis on before the onset of the fear period.  Behav­ior mod­i­fi­ca­tion is his learn­ing to adapt after this time.

We are going to marry the tech­ni­cal with the col­lo­quial.  Here, puppy socialization means a puppy’s being com­fort­able around any­thing new before he is 16 weeks old – includ­ing humans, other ani­mals, and the sights, smells, sounds, and loca­tions of every­day life – and, yes, that does lump together “social­iza­tion” and “habit­u­at­ing.”

This was an excerpt from my book Puppy Socialization – An Insider’s Guide to Dog Behavioral Fitness.  There are hundreds of suggestions on puppy socialization both for the breeder and the pet parent.

Want More information on puppy socialization

Click here to purchase the book in paperback or Kindle from Amazon.

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New Puppy Checklist

New Puppy Checklist

Havanese puppy with heart looking for new puppy checklist

We’re gonna love each other!

Congratulations on your new puppy!  You can be overwhelmed at when you first get your new puppy because there are a myriad of things to do and supplies to buy.   It’s almost like preparing for a new baby.  Here’s just a brief summary of the important things to do.

  • Get puppy supplies, puppy food, and toys.  Take a look at my favorite new puppy supplies, and I think they’ll be yours, too.
  • Puppy proof your home and yard to keep your new puppy safe.
  • Find a great veterinarian who will explain about puppy health care including testing for worms and parasites as well as explaining the importance of vaccines.
  • Find a great groomer and learn how you can do take care of some grooming issues at home.
  • Learn about puppy behavior, including puppy separation anxiety, to help his emotional well-being.
  • Learn the right way to train your puppy, starting with puppy potty training.  Email me for your free Puppy Potty Training Log.  I’ve also written a book on Puppy Potty Training which is both funny and educational.
  • Learn how to introduce your puppy to people so he doesn’t become a nuisance.
  • Learn how to introduce your puppy to other animals.
  • Socialize your puppy the right way so he will be comfortable in the real world and you can take him anywhere.  Email me for your free Puppy Socialization Checklist.  The list comes from my book on Puppy Socialization.
  • Familiarize yourself on new puppy behavior, what’s good and what isn’t.
  • Learn how to handle your puppy and brush his teeth – it’s easier to start now so he gets used to it at a young age.
  • Get him microchipped and an ID tag to help find him if he gets lost or – gasp! – stolen.
  • Find a good puppy class with an excellent instructor.  This is the most important period in your puppy’s life, so be sure the instructor has had at least 5 years of experience dealing with puppies.
  • And, most of all, enjoy your new puppy!
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I’d love to hear what your comments are. How have you gotten your dog to stop chewing? Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

Dog Training Links

Dog Training Links

dog at computer looking up dog training links

I’m busy searching for good doggie stuff!

I have handpicked these dog training links for your reference.

Dog Activities and Sports

Dog-related Organizations

Dog Behavior and Training Articles

Dog Bite Prevention

Dogs and Kids

Dog Parks

Dog Health and Medical

Miscellaneous Dog Sites

Dog Loss Support

Dog Poisons

Dog-Related Publications

Dog Rescue Organizations

Dog Seminars and Workshops

Temperament Testing for Dogs

Traveling with your Dog


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ACTIVITIES AND DOG SPORTS

American Kennel Club
https://www.akc.org/

American Mixed Breed Obedience Registration
http://www.ambor.us/

American Treibball Association
www.americantreibballassociation.org/

Dog Play
http://www.dogplay.com/

Dock Dogs
www.dockdogs.com

North American Dog Agility Council
http://www.nadac.com/

North American Flyball Association
http://www.flyball.org/

The United Kennel Club, Inc.
http://www.ukcdogs.com/Web.nsf/WebPages/Home

United States Dog Agility Association
http://www.usdaa.com/

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DOG ORGANIZATIONS

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
http://www.aspca.org

Association of Professional Dog Trainers
www.apdt.com

Delta Society
http://www.petpartners.org/

National Animal Interest Alliance
http://www.naiaonline.org/

The Humane Society of the United States
http://www.humanesociety.org/

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DOG BEHAVIOR and TRAINING ARTICLES

Applied Ethology
http://www.usask.ca/wcvm/herdmed/applied-ethology/

Dog Star Daily
www.dogstardaily.com

Dr. P’s Dog Training
http://www.uwsp.edu/psych/dog/dog.htm

Flying Dog Press
www.flyingdogpress.com

Myrna Milani, DVM
http://www.mmilani.com./

Patricia McConnell
www.patriciamcconnell.com

Sensory, Emotional, and Social Development of the Young Dog
http://www.nwk9.com/dehasse_pupdev.htm#12

St. Huberts Petpourri Library
http://www.sthuberts.org/page.aspx?pid=196

Information on Teacup Puppies and Dogs Care and Training
http://www.teacuppuppiesanddogs.com

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DOG BITE PREVENTION

Dog Bite Law
http://www.dogbitelaw.com/

Tufts University
http://now.tufts.edu/gsearch/dodman

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DOGS and KIDS

How to Love Your Dog: A Kid’s Guide
http://www.loveyourdog.com/

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DOG PARKS

Dog Parks
http://www.dogpark.com/

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DOG HEALTH and MEDICAL

American Animal Hospital Association
http://www.healthypet.com/

American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association
www.AHVMA.org

Cancer in the Canine
http://www.labbies.com/cancerintro.htm

Encyclopedia of Canine Veterinary Information
http://www.vetinfo.com/dencyclopedia/deindex.html

Mercola Healthy Pets
www.healthypets.mercola.com

Merck Veterinary Manual
http://www.merckvetmanual.com

Morris Animal Foundation
http://www.morrisanimalfoundation.org

Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
http://www.offa.org/

Rabies Challenge Fund
www.rabieschallengefund.org

TuftsUniversitySchool of Medicine
http://www.tufts.edu/vet/cfa

Virtual Library of Veterinary Medicine
http://netvet.wustl.edu/vetmed.htm

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MISCELLANEOUS DOG SITES

American Rare Breeds Association
http://www.arba.org/

Camp Ilene
http://www.campilene.com

Chazhound
http://chazhound.com/dog/

Dogmark
http://www.dogmark.net/

Dog Books Library
http://www.dogbookslibrary.com

Dog Owner’s Guide
http://www.canismajor.com/dog/alltopic.html

Dog Trainers Directory.com
http://www.dogtrainersdirectory.com/

Dog Seminars Directory
http://www.dogseminarsdirectory.com

Dr. Sophia Yin
www.drsophiayin.com/

Los Angeles Rescue Dog Adoption
http://www.los-angeles-rescue-dog-adoption.com

Military Dog Tags….Identification you and your pets can wear.
http://www.dogtagsonline.com

Nina Ottosson
www.nina-ottosson.com

Pet Peoples Place
http://www.petpeoplesplace.com/

Puppy Manners
http://www.puppymanners.com/

Puppy Sites
http://www.puppysites.com

Puppy Dog Potty Training
http://www.puppy-dog-potty-training.com

Sirius Dog
http://siriusdog.com/index.php

Teacup Puppies and Dogs
http://www.teacuppuppiesanddogs.com

Working Dog Web
http://www.workingdogweb.com/

at-LA.com
http://www.at-la.com/index.htm

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DOG LOSS SUPPORT

Association for Pet Loss and Bereavement
http://www.aplb.org/

Pet Loss
http://www.perfectmemorials.com/info/dealing-with-loss-of-pet.php

Pet Loss
http://www.petloss.com/

University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital
http://www.cvm.uiuc.edu/petcolumns/showsect.cfm?section=Dogs

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DOG POISONS

Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database
http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/comlist.html

Poisonous plants
http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/BSCI124/lec30.html

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DOG PUBLICATIONS

Working Dog Web
http://www.workingdogweb.com/default.htm

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DOG RESCUE ORGANIZATIONS

Dog Saver
http://www.dogsaver.org/

Humane Society of Denver
http://www.ddfl.org/resources-and-publications/resource-library

Pet Bond
http://www.petbond.com/

Pet Finder
http://www.petfinder.org/

The Senior Dogs Project
http://www.srdogs.com/

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DOG SEMINARS and WORKSHOPS

Dog Seminars Directory
http://www.dogseminarsdirectory.com/

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TEMPERAMENT TESTING FOR DOGS

American Temperament Test Society
http://www.atts.org

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TRAVELING WITH YOUR DOG

Dog Friendly
http://www.dogfriendly.com/

Pets Welcome
http://www.petswelcome.com/

Take Your Pet
http://www.takeyourpet.com

I’d love to hear what your comments are. Do you have any favorite Dog Training links? Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Thanks for visiting Dog Training Links

Thanks for visiting Dog Training Links!

Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Puppy Dog Food Treats Recalls

Puppy Dog Food Treats Recalls

Chihuahua And Dog Biscuits

Save me from eating this!

Read the labels of all the dog food and treats you buy! Make sure the food and dog treats come from the US or Canada and not a third-world country.  The label should read 00-13.

The barcode information below is from http://www.snopes.com/politics/business/barcodes.asp

00-13 USA and Canada
30-37 France.
40-44 Germany
49 Japan
50 UK
57 Denmark
64 Finland
76 Switzerland and Leichtenstein
471 Taiwan
480 Philippines
628 Saudi Arabia
629 United Arab Emerates
690-695 China
740-745 Central America

If your dog food is on the list and you decide to change brands, please consider Flint River Ranch, which is the one that I recommend and sell. Here is the link — I want to emphasize that FRR IS NOT BEING RECALLED and has never been recalled.
http://www.frrco.com/

4/26/15
Nylabone Puppy Starter Kit Recall

http://boston.cbslocal.com/2015/04/26/nylabone-recalls-dog-chews-for-salmonella-risk-to-pets-owners/

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Thanks for visiting our website and reading Puppy Dog Food Treats Recalls!

Thanks for reading Puppy Dog Food Treats Recalls!

Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

You Can’t Train Your Dog When…

You Can’t Train Your Dog
When You’re Doing Something Else

man on sofa with cell phone and newspaper - you can't train your dog when you're doing something else

I’m soooo busy!

What does this mean? If I handed you a scalpel and told you you had to do brain surgery and then got mad at you because the patient died, how would you react? Now, that’s an absurd example — or is it?

  • Well, If the UPS guy is at the door and you don’t want your dog to dash out the door, you can’t train him because you’re doing something else — answering the door.
  • You can’t train your dog to stop barking in the car if you are driving.
  • You can’t train your dog to like children if the only time he sees a child is when you’re screaming at him for barking at them.
  • You can’t train your dog to walk nicely on a leash if you’re in a hurry to go somewhere.
  • You can’t train your dog to not bark at dogs walking past your yard if you’re watching TV or are on the computer.

These are just a few examples that we encounter in everyday life. We’re doing something and expect our dogs to read our minds as to how we want them to act and then get frustrated because they don’t.

What we CAN do is set up those scenarios when *we* are in control and THEN show our dogs what we want them to do. Is it going to happen on the first attempt or overnight? Not likely.

There’s a huge difference between prevention and training — and we use both of those. We CAN prevent “the bad thing” from happening in the first place, i.e., close the door so our dog can’t see the dogs walking outside. That’s a pretty easy but necessary step in training. Why? Because it prevents him from rehearsing “bad” behavior. How does anyone get better at something? By rehearsing. Some things are easier to prevent than others. Unfortunately, we don’t have control over everything that goes on in our lives. But we can make the effort.

I’d love to hear what your comments are on not being able to train your dog when you’re doing something else. Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog behavior consultant or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Help Your Vet Help Your Dog

Help Your Vet Help Your Dog

dog kissing vet - help your vet help your dog

My dog loves my vet!

Dogs can be afraid of going to a veterinarian or they can love it — it all depends on how they are trained before they go to the vet’s office and how they are treated at the office.

You can do a number of things at home to Help Your Vet Help Your Dog.

Understanding your Dog’s Behavior

Socializing Your Dog

Obedience Training

Handling Exercises

Working with Your Vet and Staff

Other Things to Consider

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Understanding Your Dog’s Behavior
in Your Vet’s Office

There are things that happen in our lives that we don’t like and situations we are afraid of. But the more prepared we are, the more secure we will feel. Behavior under stress is exaggerated. If your dog is normally calm and confident, in your vet’s office he may be shy, cautious, panicky, or aggressive. He is in a place with new smells, unfamiliar sights, strange sounds, and different surfaces to walk on. He also picks up on the emotions of the other people and animals surrounding him. He needs your help and guidance to prepare him for new things. Be patient with him and act upbeat even though you may not be.

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Socializing Your Dog
Before Going to Your Vet’s Office

If your dog spends the majority of his time in your house and yard and does not meet people outside your family members, then chances are that he will be apprehensive and fearful of any new situations he finds himself in. The socialization process means getting your dog used to new sounds, sights, smells, and flooring.  Socialization and habituation to new things will not only help him at the vet’s office, but it will help him become a well-adjusted and calmer dog at home.

Introduce your dog to people of all ages who wear different kinds of clothing and carry all sorts of objects. Take him to different environments. Let him walk on new surfaces and see and hear different sights and sounds such as motorcycles, trucks backfiring, umbrellas opening, and children playing. It may take him a little time to get used to the outside world, so please be patient.

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Obedience Training Helps
When Your Vet Examines Your Dog

Obedience training is trust training — your dog trusts you to keep him safe when you are his leader. You set guidelines and boundaries for him, and he feels safe within them.

Train your dog to sit, stay, stand, and lie down on command. For the sit command, your dog is standing in front of you. Take a treat and hold it at his nose. Slowly move the treat just above his head between his eyes. He should follow the treat with his nose, and that movement will make his head come up and his rear end go to the floor. Praise him and give him the treat.

For the stand (now that he is sitting), hold the treat just in front of his nose and bring your hand towards your body so he has to get up to reach for the treat. When he stands, praise him and give him the treat.

For the down, he should be in the sit position. Put a treat just in front of his nose and slowly bring it to the floor between his toes. His head will lower to get the treat. When it does, wait until his head is almost touching the floor, and then slowly drag the treat towards you.

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Handling Exercises Are a Good Way
to Get Your Dog Used to
a Person Moving His Body in New Ways
Similar to How Your Vet Will

While you are at home, handle your dog as your vet would during an exam. Choose a quiet time and quiet place. Give him treats during this whole process and let him become comfortable with each part of the process before proceeding to the next part.

Several times a day, pick up your dog and put him on a raised surface such as a countertop so he will not be afraid of getting up on the examination table.

Begin by just touching all parts of his body as if you are giving him an all-over body massage. As he gets comfortable with that, then touch his ears, look inside his ears, open his mouth, touch his teeth and gums, move his tongue around. Pick up his paws. Run your hands down his legs. Gently squeeze his feet, toes, and tail. Hold and then squeeze gently his shoulders and then his hips between your hands. Press gently on his spine.

Now get him ready for the positions he might be put in. Give him a bear hug while you are facing him. Then give him one from behind him. Hold his head in the crook of your arm. This is how a technician would hold him.

Put him on his right side and stretch his legs out away from you. Then do the same thing on his left side. Lay him on his back and give him a belly rub. Then gently stretch his legs out. These positions simulate positions for x-ray procedures

Every member of your family should repeat these exercises. Then have someone he knows do the same thing. Remember to give him treats!!!

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Working with Your Vet and Staff
before Bringing Your Dog to the Vet Office

Going to your vet’s office should be a positive experience. Drive there several times and simply stay in the parking lot giving your dog treats. Then go into the reception area and ask the receptionist and staff to make a fuss over your dog and give him treats. Some dogs don’t like the slippery floors. Get Shaws Paws to put on your dog’s feet to help them grip the floor better or bring some carpeting for him to walk on.  If you have a puppy, then do not let him walk on the floor or around your vet’s office – including outside – until at least two weeks after he has had his final puppy vaccine because his body is building up immunity to the diseases.

When you do make an appointment, make it at the least busy time of your doctor’s day. Arrive early so you are not stressed. Ask the staff members to give your dog treats. You may want to bring a towel for your dog to lie on in the reception area.

Before your doctor begins examining your dog, tell him about any sensitivities your dog has. Your dog might feel more comfortable on the floor rather than on an examination table, so ask your doctor if the examination can be performed on the floor. Also ask your doctor to give your dog treats during his examination.

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Other Things to Consider

Sometimes despite your best efforts to get your dog acclimated to your veterinarian’s office, it still may not go as well as you expected. There are other things that can be done that may help.

Here are some options:

  • Stay in your car while waiting to see the vet and ask the staff to come get you.  Go immediately from your car into the exam room and don’t wait in the reception area.
  • Give your dog homeopathic,  holistic,  or herbal remedies to calm him before his visit or ask your veterinarian for a tranquilizer. (Check with your doctor ahead of time as to whether administration of any of these would interfere with his examination and blood work.)
  • Arrange for your doctor to come to your home.
  • Learn your dog’s acupressure points for calmness.
  • Learn how to use your own body language, voice, and movement to help calm him down.

The suggestions given here are just a brief general overview of ways to help your dog. Both you and your dog may need the help of a trainer to design specific counter conditioning and desensitization techniques for your situation.

Read the article add “Help Your Groomer Help Your Dog” for more dog handling tips.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. What do you do to prepare your dog for a veterinary examination? Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Thanks for reading Help Your Vet Help Your Dog!

Disclaimer: This article is for informational only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog behavior consultant or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Phone Calls about Dog Training and Behavior

Phone Calls about
Dog Training and Behavior

dog and phone call to los angeles dog trainer

Can we talk?

I get several phone calls from potential clients asking me various questions on numerous subjects regarding their dogs on dog training and behavior. Some of the questions are: “My dog is doing X. Can you make him stop?” Others are: “My dog is doing X. Can you help me?”

Unfortunately, I can’t do a lot for the first group. Dog training is a collaborative effort among the three of us — you, your dog, and me. When you see how much your behavior impacts your dog’s behavior, magic happens and you dog’s behavior changes!

One of my favorite “dog training” shows was Super Nanny — which was *not* a dog training show at all. In case you aren’t familiar with the show, people asked for Super Nanny’s help because their children are out of control — they bite, they kick, they scream, they swear, they write on the walls, they have temper tantrums, they destroy things when they don’t get their way.  It’s no longer on TV, but if you would like to watch it, here’s the link http://www.tv.com/shows/supernanny/

Jo comes in and works with — wait for it — the parents!!! She rarely works with the children. She helps the parents set rules, boundaries, and consequences that *the children* understand. And magic does happen.

The key is helping children — and dogs — understand what is expected of them in a way that makes sense to them — not in a way that makes sense to you, but in a way that makes sense to them. That’s part of what we teach in Doggie Manners.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. Are you a dog trainer? Please share your experiences with your phone calls from clients or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

thanks for visiting our website and reading about phone calls about dog training and behavior

Thanks for reading about Phone Calls about Dog Training and Behavior!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Stop Dog Chewing

Stop Dog Chewing

how can i get my dog to stop chewing

Yummy!

How Can I Stop My Dog from Chewing? Okay, your dog chews. That really is normal behavior for him. The problem is that he chews the wrong things. So you need to teach him how to chew the right things.

There are general solutions for behavior problems, all of which are important: provide your dog with more and appropriate physical and mental exercise, the right kind of play, and, especially, the right kind of training.

Specifically regarding your dog’s chewing, first, make sure your dog does not have a physical problem, i.e., toothache, stomach problem, or nutritional imbalance. Puppies chew to help with the pain of teething. Give them ice cubes for relief.

If your dog chews when you are not home, he may have some separation problems and you need to exercise him more, a lot more, and work on building up his confidence with  basic obedience exercises so he can stay alone for extended periods.  There is much more involved with separation anxiety than just chewing, and your dog will need professional help with a dog behavior consultant.

If his chewing is not separation anxiety and he has chewed while you are away from home.  If you punish him for chewing when you get home, it will not work because your dog does not associate the chewed items with your unhappiness. Teach him what are appropriate dog chew toys and praise him when he chews on the right toys so that he will chew those toys when you are away.

These are only partial solutions. Enroll your dog in a reward-based training program so that you can how him acceptable behavior in a way that makes sense to him and you are both working together for a common goal.

Read more about solving Dog Behavior Problems.

Please have patience. Habits do not change overnight. Give yourself and your dog a chance.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. How have you gotten your dog to stop chewing? Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

Thanks for visiting our website and reading Stop Dog Chewing

Thanks for reading Stop Dog Chewing!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Dog Videos

Dog Videos

dog with clapboard making dog videos

Action!

These dog videos are both funny and educational.   They show some cute stuff, and some dangerous stuff.  They also show different facets of dog behavior dog training, and dog body language.

Please remember that many of the dog videos seen on YouTube which you may think are cute or funny actually may show dangerous situations or are a misinterpretation of dog behavior.

Is your dog Alpha? Learn from the man who originated the term.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tNtFgdwTsbU

Doggie Waterslide
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8WmxgFPjoYM

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Thanks for visiting our website and reading about dog videos

Thanks for reading about dog videos!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Housebreaking Puppies

Housebreaking Puppies
aka
The Stages of Housebrokenness

puppy peeing not housebroken - housebreaking or potty training puppies

Oh, what a relief it is!

 

 

Click here for in-person lessons on FIX LINK HERE AND AT BOTTOM
how to potty train your puppy in the Los Angeles area
and telephone consultations in other areas.

1) Neonatal stage (~birth to 2 weeks). Puppy urinates and defecates only when stimulated by mother, who cleans it up.

2) Toddler stage (~2 weeks to 5 weeks). Puppy begins to “go” on his own, and when allowed, tries to do so away from the “nest.” [Instinct for cleanliness?]

3) “Pre-school” stage (~5 to 9 weeks). Puppy begins to want to “go” in a particular place, frequently a place having the right “smell,” but sight picture often enters in. Most puppies leave “home” at this point and lose that favorite place, which can result in confusion.

————————————————————————

Sometime during the “pre-school” stage, the puppy is ready to begin the journey into housebrokenness. Some puppies/dogs do not get the opportunity to progress, and may be stuck in the toddler stage even, due to lack of opportunity or because of inadequate response by the owner. From now on, the stages in housebrokenness are the same, whether for a puppy or for an adult dog, and knowing the stage the dog has reached can suggest the best approach to learning. Progression will vary depending on breed, individual dog, owner attention, etc.

4) Dog does his business away from his own bed and feeding area.

5) Dog has a preferred spot for doing his business. (Never mind that it is the middle of the dining room carpet, it’s a preferred spot!)

6) Dog understands that the “preferred spot” is outside on the grass, and when he *needs* to go and is *taken* there, he will do it there.

7) Dog understands the preferred spot and will let the owner know when he needs to go out.

8) Dog learns to “hold it” until taken out by owner.

9) Dog learns to do it on command, whether or not he greatly needs to go.

10) Dog will not release it unless in the right place or under command.

Some time between 6 and 9, the dog learns to “do it” in approved locations away from his “preferred spot.”

I am not talking here about HOW to accomplish all of this, just the recognition that housebreaking is not an either/or proposition.

***Submissive or excitement urination has little or nothing to do with housebreaking, and must be addressed separately.

Copyright 2008 by Barbara McClatchey
Permission to distribute is given, but copyright must remain attached.

This article appears in my Puppy Potty Training book.

puppy potty training book

If you would like help potty training your dog or puppy, please click for more information for in-person puppy or dog potty training in the Los Angeles area or telephone consultations elsewhere.

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Los Angeles Animal Services Administrative Hearing Guide

Barking Dog and Dangerous Animals
Administrative Hearing Guide
for the City of Los Angeles

los angeles hearing guide barking dangerous dog

Help!

Many people are not aware that there is a procedure for a hearing if a dog is barking or dangerous.  The Los Angeles Animal Services Administrative Hearing Guide outlines the policies for these hearings.

This article is written by and provided as a service to the Department of Animal Services Administrative Hearing Program.

Introduction

In July of 1987, the City of Los Angeles enacted ordinances (LAMC 53.18.5, 53.34.4, 53.63) which authorized the Department of Animal Services to conduct administrative hearings.

Complaints about excessive barking dogs must be made in writing to the Department; please visit our Barking Dog Complaint page for details. For complaints about dangerous animals, please visit our Dangerous Animal Complaint page.

If the problems are not resolved through the Department’s complaint process, the complaint may be referred to an Administrative Hearing, the final mechanism for members of the public wishing to resolve issues involving excessive barking and dangerous animals. An Administrative Hearing is a legal and formal process to resolve such issues. The Program is designed to allow the Department to more effectively provide for the public health, safety, and welfare. In many instances, the administrative hearing program also enhances the care, protection, and quality of life for animals by regulating the manner in which the animals are to be maintained in this City.

The reason why the City has the ordinances is to address problems with dogs that bark excessively and to keep Los Angeles residents safe from dangerous animals in their neighborhoods.

The intent of this guide is to provide basic information and to answer asked questions concerning the Department of Animal Services Administrative Hearing Program. It is not intended to be a legal reference.

Any additional questions may be directed to your nearest Los Angeles Animal Care Center.

Questions and Answers About Administrative Hearings

WHAT IS AN ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING?
WHO MAY INITIATE THE CHARGES THAT LEAD TO AN ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING?
WHO MAY BE CHARGED AS A RESPONDENT AT THE HEARING?
WHAT TYPES OF CASES ARE INVOLVED IN THIS PROGRAM?
WHO IS AUTHORIZED TO CONDUCT ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS?
WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF THESE HEARINGS?
WHAT IS A STIPULATION?
CAN THE RESPONDENT STIPULATE TO THE FACTS CONTAINED IN THE DEPARTMENT’S CASE?
WHAT IS THE HEARING EXAMINER’S FUNCTION?
WHAT TYPES OF EVIDENCE WILL BE CONSIDERED BY THE HEARING EXAMINER?
WHAT INFORMATION IS IN THE DEPARTMENT’S CASE?
HOW IS EVIDENCE RECEIVED AT THE HEARING?
WHO HAS THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE THE FINAL DECISION IN THESE HEARINGS?
HOW DOES THE APPEAL SYSTEM WORK?
WHAT ARE REASONS FOR APPEAL?
HOW ARE APPEALS FILED?
MAY PARTICIPANTS BE REPRESENTED BY LEGAL COUNSEL?
HOW ARE PARTICIPANTS NOTIFIED OF THE TIME, PLACE AND DATE OF THE HEARING?
WHO MAY ATTEND THESE HEARINGS?
WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES FOR FAILING TO APPEAR AS SUMMONED/ SUBPOENAED?
CAN THE HEARING BE RESCHEDULED?
ARE INTERPRETERS PROVIDED AT THE HEARING?
WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO CROSS EXAMINE TESTIMONY AND EXAMINE EVIDENCE AT THE HEARING?
HOW LONG DOES A HEARING LAST?
ARE THERE ANY COSTS INVOLVED AT THE HEARING?
CAN HEARINGS BE WITHDRAWN?
SHOULD THE ANIMAL(S) INVOLVED IN THE CASE BE BROUGHT TO THE HEARING?
WHAT TYPE OF RECORDS ARE KEPT OF THE HEARING?
ARE CHILDREN PERMITTED AT THE HEARING?

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WHAT IS AN ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING?
An administrative hearing is like a non-jury trial in a civil court. The parties, however, are complainant and respondent rather than plaintiff and defendant, and the procedure is governed by statutes, regulations, and ordinances applicable to the City of Los Angeles Administrative Hearings.

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WHO MAY INITIATE THE CHARGES THAT LEAD TO AN ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING?
Request for administrative hearings are filed by a City Animal Control Officer after a complaint has been received and investigated, and there is evidence of a violation.

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WHO MAY BE CHARGED AS A RESPONDENT AT THE HEARING?
Any person having care, charge, control, custody or ownership of the involved animal(s) is legally responsible for the actions of those animal(s).

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WHAT TYPES OF CASES ARE INVOLVED IN THIS PROGRAM?
The Department of Animal Services Administrative Hearing Program consist of the following:

Sec. 53.18.5 LAMC-Hearing Procedure

– Governs the conduct of hearings and Hearing Examiners before, during and after the hearing.

It further provides for an appeal process and the manner in which a person’s dog licensing privileges may be reinstated.

Sec.53.34.4 LAMC-Dangerous Animal Hearings

Provides for an administrative hearing to be conducted to determine if a dog or other animal is dangerous, or if the dog or other animal is not dangerous, but that a bite, attack or injury was the result of improper or negligent training, handling or maintenance.

Sec. 53.63 LAMC-Excessive Barking Dog Hearings

Makes it unlawful for any person to permit any dog under his/her charge, care, custody or control to emit any excessive noise.

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WHO IS AUTHORIZED TO CONDUCT ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS?
A Hearing Examiner appointed by the General Manager, Department of Animal Services, is solely responsible for the conduct of the Hearings.

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WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF THESE HEARINGS?
Department of Animal Services hearings can result in the following actions:

(A) Dismissal of charges,

(B) Re-issuance of a license/permit subject to specific terms, conditions and restrictions being applied to future maintenance of the animal,

(C) Revocation of a license/permit, resulting in the removal of the animal from the City of Los Angeles.

(D) Humane destruction of a dangerous animal.

(E) A $250.00 penalty being levied in addition to (B) and (C) above for violation of terms and conditions previously imposed.

Any hearing resulting in a license/permit revocation or an animal being declared dangerous and subsequently destroyed may restrict future ownership privileges of animals of the same species in this City for the respondent.


WHAT IS A STIPULATION?
A stipulation is a settlement agreed upon by the animal owner and the officer or other person representing the Department. In stipulations, the respondent waives all statutory and constitutional rights including but not limited to, the right to testify and confront and cross-examine witnesses. Stipulations also provide that the administrative record shall be inadmissible in any other proceedings.

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CAN THE RESPONDENT STIPULATE TO THE FACTS CONTAINED IN THE DEPARTMENT’S CASE?
Yes. Rather than proceed with an Administrative Hearing, if you do not wish to contest the occurrence of the events as alleged by the department you may request to stipulate. A stipulation will usually result in the re-issuance of the license subject to compliance with certain conditions for the handling and maintenance of the dog or other animal.

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WHAT IS THE HEARING EXAMINER’S FUNCTION?
The Hearing Examiner receives and evaluates evidence presented at the hearing and prepares a written report and recommendation to the General Manager, Department of Animal Services.

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WHAT TYPES OF EVIDENCE WILL BE CONSIDERED BY THE HEARING EXAMINER?
The Hearing Examiner will receive any evidence that is relevant. The types of evidence that are commonly accepted included:

(A) Sworn testimony from witnesses,

(B) Photographs,

(C) Audio and video recordings,

(D) Medical records,

(E) Diagrams and maps,

(F) Licensing/permit records,

(G) Letters, and

(H) Any other relevant documents.

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WHAT INFORMATION IS IN THE DEPARTMENT’S CASE?
A copy of the Department case file may be obtained by the pet owner at a nominal cost by submitting a written request to the Animal Care and Control Center’s Field Supervisor filing the case.

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HOW IS EVIDENCE RECEIVED AT THE HEARING?
All testimony is taken under sworn oath. Any intentional submission of false information may lead to criminal charges. Any evidence submitted at the hearing becomes a permanent part of the hearing record and will not be returned.

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WHO HAS THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE THE FINAL DECISION IN THESE HEARINGS?
The General Manager, Department of Animal Services makes the final decision. This decision is legally binding unless appealed by the respondent.

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HOW DOES THE APPEAL SYSTEM WORK?
A respondent may appeal any Notice of Order within fifteen (15) days provided that he/she attends the hearing. Appeals are heard by the Board of Animal Services Commission. The Board may affirm, modify, or reverse the decision of the General Manager. Board decisions may be appealed to Superior Court.

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WHAT ARE REASONS FOR APPEAL?
A respondent may appeal the decision of the General Manager if he/she believes of the General Manager is not supported by the evidence of the case, or the hearing was not conducted in accordance with provisions for the conduct of hearings. Challenges to the Constitutionality of the ordinance will not be heard by the Board of Animal Services. The complainant may not appeal the decision of the General manager of the Board of Animal Services Commission.

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HOW ARE APPEALS FILED?
Appeal forms and instructions are included with the General Manager, Department of Animal Services decision that is mailed to the respondent.

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MAY PARTICIPANTS BE REPRESENTED BY LEGAL COUNSEL?
Yes. Any person may be represented by an attorney or any other legal representative at the hearing. Legal counsel, however, will not be provided nor is it required by law. The City will not pay for or provide for an attorney to represent any party to a hearing.

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HOW ARE PARTICIPANTS NOTIFIED OF THE TIME, PLACE AND DATE OF THE HEARING?
A written summons or subpoena containing that information will be mailed to all principals by the Hearing Examiner.

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WHO MAY ATTEND THESE HEARINGS?

All persons receiving a summons/subpoena issued by the Hearing Examiner are required to attend the hearing. If the respondent wishes to persons summoned to the Administrative Hearing a written request to do so must be submitted to the Hearing examiner issuing the summons/subpoena no less than fifteen (15) days prior to the scheduled hearing date. All requests must include the full name and address of the person to be summoned.

Any witness with relevant evidence or testimony may attend a hearing. Discretion will be used by the Hearing Examiner as to the attendance of others.

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WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES FOR FAILING TO APPEAR AS SUMMONED/ SUBPOENAED?
Hearings may be held in spite of the absence of the involved parties. Failure to appear may result in:

(A) The respondent forfeiting his/her right to appeal any action taken against him/her,

(B) The respondent forfeiting his/her right to challenge any evidence presented against him/her,

(C) Dismissal of the case due to the failure to satisfy the “Burden of Proof” that is required to substantiate the allegations,

(D) Arrest in cases involving disobedience of a subpoena.

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CAN THE HEARING BE RESCHEDULED?
The Hearing Examiner may reschedule a hearing for good cause. Any such request for rescheduling must be filed with the Hearing Examiner in a timely manner.

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ARE INTERPRETERS PROVIDED AT THE HEARING?
Persons may provide their own interpreter if necessary. If they are unable to do so, a request for any interpreter should be made in a timely manner to the Hearing Examiner who issued the summons notice.

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WHO HAS THE RIGHT TO CROSS EXAMINE TESTIMONY AND EXAMINE EVIDENCE AT THE HEARING?
Witnesses may be cross examined and evidence examined by the complainant, respondent and the Hearing Examiner.

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HOW LONG DOES A HEARING LAST?
There is no way to determine the exact length of any hearing. Legal requirements and other factors impact the time. Hearings usually last from two (2) to six (6) hours.

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ARE THERE ANY COSTS INVOLVED AT THE HEARING?
The City of Los Angeles pays for costs involved in these hearings. The City of Los Angeles, however, will not pay witness fees nor reimburse any lost wages that may result from attendance at the hearing.

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CAN HEARINGS BE WITHDRAWN?
Yes, under certain circumstances if the problem is remedied. Requests concerning possible withdrawal of charges should be made through the Animal Care and Control Center that filed the case for hearing.

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SHOULD THE ANIMAL(S) INVOLVED IN THE CASE BE BROUGHT TO THE HEARING?
No animals should be brought to the hearing. Photographs and proof of current licensing or permit for the animal is all that is necessary to identify the animal.

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WHAT TYPE OF RECORDS ARE KEPT OF THE HEARING?
The entire hearing is tape-recorded. All evidence received becomes a permanent part of the hearing record and is retained by the Department of Animal Services.

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ARE CHILDREN PERMITTED AT THE HEARING?
Only those children who have relevant testimony should attend the hearing. Child Care facilities are not available at the hearing sites.

For further information please call (888) 452-7381.

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Thanks for reading the Los Angeles Administrative Hearing Guide regarding dogs!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Senior Citizens and Young Dogs

Senior Citizens and Young Dogs

senior citizen baby boomers training dogs

We can do anything!

I just got a phone call from a man who I will call Rob. Rob’s father (Ben) is 82 years old and has a one-year-old Golden Retriever who I will call Parker. Rob called me because his father needed help training Parker. Ben is currently in the hospital with a broken hip, which happened when Parker saw another dog across the street and pulled Ben off the curb to get to the other dog. Ben was in good shape when the accident happened — he walks several miles every day — but Parker was just too exuberant and too big for Ben to control.

I wish this was an isolated incident by a caring child who wants to help his senior parent. Unfortunately, it’s not that uncommon.  Senior citizens and young dogs — especially if they are large dogs — may not be a good mix.

Does this mean that seniors should not have dogs? Absolutely not. But THIS situation was not a good one because Parker was too much dog for Ben to handle.

Being a baby boomer myself (the word “senior” just doesn’t seem to fit my lifestyle!), for most of my adult life, I had dogs that I rescued as adults and that weighed about 50+ pounds.   At the end of their lives, at times they had to be carried.  There was nobody to do it except for me – and it was especially difficult going up stairs.  When I was 62, both of my dogs died, and I looked for new dogs — smaller dogs, no more than 25 pounds – because I knew my limitations.

Puppies and adolescent dogs are a lot of work for people of *any* age. It may seem logical that senior citizens who may have lots of time on their hands are perfect candidates so they can spend the time training their dogs, and in many cases that can be true. But puppies have their own timetable and needs, and adolescent dogs are full of energy — and full of themselves — and many seniors don’t have the physical AND mental energy to devote to them.

A large adolescent dog is a handful for someone of any age, even if the dog was trained as a puppy. They’re adolescents, which means they basically have one paw in puppyhood and one paw in adulthood and are testing which works better for them. Adolescence is also a time when animals of any age – humans included – pull away from their parents and become more independent and begin to voice their opinions on anything and everything. It definitely helps for the dogs to have a solid foundation in obedience and to have been well socialized as puppies.

There are some training tools you can use.  I like the Gentle Leader which is like a halter for a horse.  It gives you more control and cuts down on your dog’s pulling.

If you’re a baby boomer (not a senior!), mentally you can challenge the world.  But physically, our bodies are changing.  This getting old crap sucks, but we need to adjust.

Read more about solving Dog Behavior Problems.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. Do you have some comments on seniors and dogs? Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

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Thanks for reading about Senior Citizens and Young Dogs!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

On-Leash Dog Aggression

On Leash Dog Aggression

on leash dog aggression los angelesThis is not fun or funny.

When peoplecall me regarding their dog being aggressive on leash to dogs or to people, my philosophy is to give the owners the methods to use rather than train the dog myself because owners live with their dogs 24/7 and can’t rely on me to fix things if I’m not there. Since the surroundings and the people present impact the dog’s learning, it’s incumbent for the owners to learn to do the protocols and use them. If I want to lose weight, simply having diet and exercise books on my bookshelf doesn’t help — I have to implement the methods.

We work on the following areas which serves as a broad foundation on which to build further training:

  • how dogs learn
  • management
  • obedience
  • behavior modification (both for the people! and the dog)
  • stop-gap measures
  • stress reduction (both for the client and the dog)

For some dogs, one session is adequate, but for others it is not — it depends on how receptive the owner is to the following through on the protocols and whether I have hit the nail on the head in one session on the exact protocols. Since each dog and person is different, I cannot determine how many sessions are required, nor can I give a guarantee that the protocols in one session will work since we may need to revise and adjust according to the dog’s behavior.

I outline what I think will work in most cases and then we refine as necessary in subsequent lessons. Much like when a doctor prescribes a medication, s/he doesn’t know for sure it will work until something happens, either good or bad. If I have the flu and the doctor gives me penicillin, I will die. Did we know that the first time I was given penicillin? No. It was a huge — and immediate — learning curve.

Remember also that changing any habit, whether it’s a dog’s or a persons, takes a *minimum* of 30 days.

Many times, all that is necessary with is simply being consistent in following the protocols, training dogs in a way that the dogs understand (not necessarily in a way that makes sense to their owners), and the passage of time. Many times people think I bring magic fairy dust that I can “cure” their dog’s problems. It takes a dedicated owner to take the time follow through. And no behavior issue — especially aggression — is solved in one lesson.

Many times, owners decide that they are going to pick and choose what they decide to do rather than follow the entire program. With aggression, it doesn’t work — everything has to be done.

Why does on leash dog aggression happen in the first place since the owners have the best intentions? When they initially call, generally speaking, management is lacking. Obedience is nowhere near what is necessary for an aggressive dog. With rescue dogs, people tend to baby them rather than give them clear boundaries and rules. Adolescence is a particularly trying time for dogs since they are testing new behaviors with one foot in puppyhood and the other in adulthood. And breed characteristics play a part as well. If you have an adolescent rescue which is a working or guarding breed and have not given them clear boundaries that *they* understand and have not obedience trained them from the day they came into your home, that’s a recipe for trouble.

The goal is not to stop the aggression — it’s for the dog never to feel the need to aggress at all by satisfying his needs of food, shelter, proper attention, exercise, etc. and know where he fits in in the family structure. That’s achieved by the foundation training mentioned earlier so he regards his owner as the leader whom he can follow and trust. If the dog aggresses, then all the owner can do is damage control, and damage control means that there is something lacking in the dog’s life that he feels the need to aggress — it’s like closing the barn door after the horse has escaped. It takes a paradigm shift on the owner’s part to trust me enough that I know what I’m doing. If they decide from the get-go that they won’t do it, then there’s nothing I can do.

After the session, I email the owner the protocols as well as other materials that we may or may not have covered in the lesson for their review. People sometimes work better when they have a physical document in their hand that they can refer to because they either did not understand what I said or what I said and what they heard are two different things.

Some of the tools are very simple and because of the simplicity, people discount their effectiveness and don’t use them. That’s unfortunate because the tools and protocols do help.  One of the tools I use for on leash dog aggression is the Gentle Leader.

Read more about solving Dog Behavior Problems.

I’d love to hear what your comments are on how you work with on leash dog aggression whether you live in Los Angeles or anywhere else.  Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog behavior consultant or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

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Thanks for reading about On Leash Dog Aggression!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Los Angeles Dog Parks

Los Angeles Dog Parks,
Dog Beaches & Dog Trails

dog park clean up - los angeles dog parks

Just a reminder!

Here is a list of the Los Angeles Dog Parks, beaches, and trails.  Please be sure to contact the park to see what the rules and regulations are. Some parks are onleash only. Some are accessible to dogs during certain hours. Some limit the number of dogs you may bring. Some are for residents of the city they are located in.

ARCADIA
Angeles National Forest

CALABASAS
CALABASAS BARK PARK
4232 Las Virgenes Road
91302
(818) 878-4242

CULVER CITY
CULVER CITY DOG PARK
Duquesne Avenue south of Jefferson in Culver City Park

EL SEGUNDO
EL SEGUNDO DOG PARK
600 East Imperial Avenue
90245

ENCINO
SEPULVEDA BASIN OFF-LEASH DOG PARK
17550 Victory Boulevard
91406
(818) 756-7667

WESTRIDGE CANYONBACK WILDERNESS PARK
17500 Mulholland Drive

LONG BEACH
DOG BEACH ZONE
1 Argonne Avenue

LOS ANGELES
BARRINGTON DOG PARK
333 South Barrington Avenue
90049
(310) 476-4866

GRIFFITH PARK DOG PARK
North end of John Ferraro Soccer Field on North Zoo Drive
90027
(323) 913-4688

HERMON PARK IN THE ARROYO SECO DOG PARK
5566 Via Marisol
90042
(323) 255-0370

RUNYON CANYON DOG PARK
2000 North Fuller
90046
(323) 666-5046

SILVERLAKE DOG PARK
1850 West Silver Lake Drive
90026
(323) 644-3946

MALIBU
LEO CARRILLO
PCH at El Matador and Leo Carillo State Beach
(818) 706-1310

CHARMLEE NATURAL AREA and MALIBU BLUFFS
Onleash and on trails only MALIBU
3577 South Encinal Canyon Road

NORTH HOLLYWOOD
WHITNALL OFFLEASH DOG PARK
5801 1/2 Whitnall Highway
91601
(818) 756-8190

PACIFIC PALISADES
Will Rogers State Park
1501 Will Rogers State Park Road

PASADENA
BROOKSIDE PARK
360 North Arroyo Boulevard
Area adjacent to the Rose Bowl

ALICE’S PARK within VINA VEIJA PARK
3026 East Orange Grove Boulevard

REDONDO BEACH
REDONDO BEACH DOG PARK within DOMINGUEZ PARK

200 Flagler Lane at the corner of 190th Street and Flagler Lane

SANTA MONICA
JOSLYN PARK
7th Street and Kensington Road.
(310) 393-9975

PACIFIC STREET PARK
Pacific and Main

SANTA MONICA/MAR VISTA
Northwest corner of Bundy Drive and Airport Avenue

SANTA MONICA
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreaion Area
401 West Hillcrest Drive

STUDIO CITY
LAUREL CANYON DOG PARK
8260 Mulholland Drive
90046
(818) 769-4415

VENICE
WESTMINSTER DOG PARK
1234 Pacific Avenue
90291
(310) 396-1615

WEST HOLLYWOOD
WILLIAM S. HART PARK
8341 De Longpre Avenue

thanks for visiting our website about Los Angeles Dog Parks - Los Angeles Puppy Dog Training

Thanks for visiting Los Angeles Dog Parks on Doggie Manners!

Is there a dog park in the Los Angeles area that I have left out? Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Los Angeles Animal Shelters

Los Angeles Animal Shelters

puppy dog los angeles animal shelters

I’d be much happier in your home!

This is a list of selected Los Angeles Animal Shelters and agencies in Los Angeles city and county, SPCAs, and other animal shelters and agencies.

PLEASE NOTE THAT
DOGGIE MANNERS IS *NOT* AN ANIMAL SHELTER.
WE DO *NOT* ACCEPT ABANDONED OR LOST ANIMALS.
WE DO NOT HAVE ANY PUPPIES FOR SALE.

DOGGIE MANNERS is a dog training and dog behavior company
based in West Los Angeles.  Please refer to our Services page for more information, including fees.

LOS ANGELES AREA ANIMAL SHELTERS

AGOURA HILLS ANIMAL SHELTER
29545 Agoura Road
Agoura 91301
(818) 991-0071
www.laanimalservices.com

BALDWIN PARK ANIMAL SHELTER
4275 North Elton
Baldwin Park 81706
(626) 962-3577
www.laanimalservices.com

BURBANK ANIMAL SHELTER
1150 North Victory Place
Burbank 91502
(818) 238-3340
www.ci.burbank.ca.us

CARSON/GARDENA ANIMAL SHELTER
216 West Victoria Street
Carson 90248
(310) 523-9566
www.laanimalservices.com

CASTAIC ANIMAL SHELTER
31044 North Charlie Canyon Road
Castaic 91384
(661) 257-3191

DOWNEY ANIMAL SHELTER
11258 South Garfield Avenue
Downey 90242
www.laanimalservices.com

EAST VALLEY ANIMAL SHELTER
14409 Vanowen Street
Van Nuys 91405
(818) 452-7381 Ext. 145
www.laanimalservices.com

GLENDALE HUMANE SOCIETY
717 West Ivy Street
Glendale 91204
(818) 242-1128
www.glendalehumane.org

HARBOR ANIMAL SHELTER
735 Battery Street
San Pedro 90731
(888) 452-7381 Ext. 143
www.laanimalservices.com

HAWTHORNE SPCA SOUTH BAY PET ADOPTION CENTER
12910 Yukon Avenue
Hawthorne 90250
(310) 676-7722
www.spcala.com

HERMOSA BEACH ANIMAL CONTROL
1035 Valley Drive
Hermosa Beach 90254
(310) 318-0209
www.hermosabch.org

HUNTINGTON PARK ANIMAL CONTROL
11258 South Garfield Avenue
Downey 90255
(323) 582-6161
www.huntingtonpark.org

LANCASTER ANIMAL SHELTER
5210 West Avenue I
Lancaster 93536
(661) 940-4191

LONG BEACH P.D. PITCHFORD ANIMAL VILLAGE
7700 East Spring Street
Long Beach 90815
(562) 570-SPCA
www.spcala.com

MANHATTAN BEACH ANIMAL CONTROL
420 15th Street
Manhattan Beach 90266
(310) 802-5160

NORTH CENTRAL ANIMAL SHELTER
3201 Lacy Street
Lincoln Heights 90031
(888) 452-7381 Ext. 141
www.laanimalservices.com

PASADENA HUMANE SOCIETY & SPCA
361 South Raymond Avenue
Pasadena 91105
(626) 286-7151
www.phsspca.org

POMONA SPCA
500 Humane Way
Pomona 91766
(909) 623-9777

SAN GABRIEL VALLEY HUMANE
851 East Grand Avenue
San Gabriel 91776

SANTA MONICA ANIMAL CONTROL
1640 9th Street
Santa Monica 90404
(310) 458-8594
www.santamonicapd.org

SEAL BEACH ANIMAL SHELTER
1700 Adolfo Lopez Drive
Seal Beach 90740
(562) 430-4993

SOUTH LOS ANGELES SHELTER
3612 11th Avenue
Los Angeles 90031
(888) 452-7381 Ext. 142
www.laanimalservices.com

SOUTHEAST AREA ANIMAL CONTROL
9777 Seaaca Street
Downey 90241
(562) 803-3301

TOPANGA SPCA PET ADOPTION CENTER
Westfield Promenade
6100 Topanga Canyon
Woodland Hills 91367
(818) 932-7988
www.spcala.com

WEST LOS ANGELES SHELTER
11361 West Pico Boulevard
Los Angeles 90025
(888) 452-7381 Ext 144
Fax (310) 207-4965
www.laanimalservices.com

WEST VALLEY SHELTER
20644 Plummer Street
Chatsworth 91311
(888) 452-7381 Ext. 146
www.laanimalservices.com

Los Angeles Animal-Related Contact Numbers

  • Dog Licensing (213) 473-7550
  • Dog Bites (323) 730-3723
  • Dead Animal Pickup (800) 773-2489
  • Bees (800) BEE-WARY
  • Whale Rescue (800) 39-WHALE
  • Fish & Game (916) 445-0045

Here’s some information on what to do when you bring home Your New Rescue Dog.

Here’s a list of new rescue dog supplies.

And if you would like some training for your new dog or puppy, please call 1-877-7-DOGGIE or email Doggie Manners.

PLEASE NOTE THAT DOGGIE MANNERS IS *NOT* AN ANIMAL SHELTER AND WE DO *NOT* ACCEPT ABANDONED OR LOST ANIMALS. WE DO NOT HAVE ANY PUPPIES.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. Do you have any comments on the Los Angeles Area Animal Shelters? Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

Thanks for visiting our website -  Los Angeles Animal Shelters

Thanks for visiting Los Angeles Animal Shelters!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Make Yourself Relevant!

When Training Your Dog
Make Yourself Relevant!

Director Dog - los angeles puppy dog training make yourself relevant

Who’s the boss?!

Many dogs think they rule the world. They demand something, and they get it because *we* give it to them or they’re too strong for us to handle, so we don’t even try (Think about a Labrador Retriever rushing past you to try to get that piece of food that’s dropped on the floor). Then we can’t understand why they are so out of control. But we’ve taught them that they don’t have to ask permission — all they have to do is demand and they get what they want because we give in — or give up. In some cases, this can translate into aggression — “You don’t give me what I want, so I’ll MAKE you give it to me by biting.” The next time he wants something, “you’re” going to remember he bit you the last time, and you don’t want to get bitten again, so you accede to his wishes, er, demands. Voila — who’s training whom?

The solution is easier than you think — make yourself relevant. Whatever your dog wants, he has to earn — and what he’s learning in the process is exhibiting some self control. If he wants to be petted, he has to sit first. If he wants you to throw the ball, then he has to stop barking at you. It’s simple — he gets what he wants after you get what you want.

How to train him is another matter. It’s the hardest at the beginning, and then it gets much, much easier it. All it is is manners. Someone taught manners to you, and there are some things you know not to do without being taught — for example, when you are invited to someone’s home for the first time, you don’t go into their refrigerator and pull out some food. It’s rude. No one taught you that, but you know social decorum.

With dogs, it’s a different matter.   Many times when I go to a client’s home for the first time, as soon as I put my briefcase on the floor, the dog’s nose goes right inside of it.   That’s rude!  That’s not his; it’s mine.  But the dog is only acting like a dog, and many times that conflicts with how we want them to act in a human world.   He needs to learn Doggie Manners!  And you can begin to teach him to be more polite by having him sit for anything and everything that he wants.

Read more about solving Dog Behavior Problems.

I’d love to hear what your comments are.  In what situations do you wish your dog had more Doggie Manners?  How have you taught your dog to have manners?  Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

thanks for visiting our website - make yourself relevant

Thanks for reading Make Yourself Relevant!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Puppy Manners

Puppy Manners

corgi in los angeles puppy manners training

I am sooo cute!

Puppy owners are concerned with present puppy behaviors: chewing, biting, and potty training.

Trainers tend to focus on the future: handling, socialization, and exercise.

All these areas are important in teaching your puppy Puppy Manners.

The Front End –
Your Puppy’s Chewing and Biting

teach your puppy not to chew with Los Angeles Puppy Manners training

Your shoe tastes just like rawhide!

Chewing and biting are normal puppy behaviors.

  • Your puppy needs to chew and bite, so give him appropriate things to chew.   Spray them with a particular scent such as chicken broth or beef broth so he knows what is his.
  • Put a taste deterrent on things you don’t want him to chew. The more he chews on the legal stuff (his toys), the less he chews on the illegal stuff (everything else – including you!).
  • Teach him how to trade the illegal stuff for the legal stuff — offer him something better (a treat) than the item he has in his mouth, and praise him for releasing it.
  • Don’t play roughhouse games with him or teasing games with your hands.
  • If you’re petting him and he bites down too hard, say “ouch” and walk away. Give him LOTS of exercise — if he’s tired, then he’ll sleep and not chew!

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The Front End again – Your Puppy’s Brain

Puppies don’t pop out of the womb knowing how to behave in our human world. They do what comes naturally to them as dogs until we show them what pleases us. Puppies need to learn self-control, puppy obedience, to be left alone, and to listen to you – you can teach him these in a gentle, loving way.

The Middle – Your Puppy’s Body

Playing is what puppies love to do. You can be his best playmate and create a trusting and loving bond with him – plus it’s good exercise for him. Hide and Seek is a great game– and it’s the beginning of the Come command. You hide and someone holds your puppy so he can’t follow you. Then you call him to come to you, and when he does, you give him lots of praise and treats.

The Back End – Puppy Potty Training

Sharpei puppy back end - Los Angeles puppy potty training

Puppies have no shame!

Potty training can be summed up in one sentence — take him where you want him to go when he has to go and then reward him there. Feed him on a set schedule rather than leaving the food down. Keep a diary so you can predict when he needs to go. Crate training helps your puppy learn how to “hold it” until you take him out — he doesn’t like to eliminate in the same place he sleeps. BUT he can’t hold it forever, so take him out often until he develops muscle control. Take him to his potty area every two hours and also when he wakes up; after he eats or drinks; before and after a play session; and if he smells the ground, acts uncomfortable, or asks to go out.

The book is FREE with telephone or in-person lessons.  Contact me for more information.

puppy potty training book written by Los Angeles puppy trainer Caryl WolffClick here to order the Kindle version.
Click here to order the paperback version.
Click here to order the paperback version in full color.

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Your Puppy and The Real World – Socialization

puppy socialization by Los Angeles puppy trainer Caryl Wolff

Keep me safe while familiarizing me with the real world!

Socialization is more than just playing with other dogs.
It’s familiarizing your puppy with things he will encounter during his lifetime. As an adult, he sees things as either safe or dangerous. “Safe” things are those where he has had positive experiences. “Dangerous” things have frightened him *and* are also things he’s not encountered before. The more you socialize him now, the more relaxed he’ll feel later. Take him to different places so he walks on many surfaces, sees people of all ages and races wearing different clothes, smells a myriad of smells, and hears all sorts of sounds.

Handling is just as important as socialization. Touch all parts of his body. Put him on his right side, then left side, then on his back. Hug him from the front and from behind. Gently stretch his legs away from his body. Give him treats while you‘re doing this so he will have a positive association with being handled.

Puppy classes that are run the right way are a wonderful way to teach your puppy these skills, and I talk about them in my Puppy Socialization book. Learn how to show your puppy acceptable behavior in a way that makes sense to him so you are both working together for a common goal.

When your puppy takes my classes, you get my Puppy Socialization book for FREE!

puppy socialization book written by Los Angeles Puppy Trainer Caryl WolffClick to order Kindle.
Click to order paperback.

Here’s a link to New Puppy Supplies I use and recommend.

Please have patience. Habits do not change overnight. Give yourself and your puppy a chance.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. What are the things you consider important for Puppy Manners? Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

Thanks for visiting Puppy Manners!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Your New Rescue Dog

Your New Rescue Dog

new rescue adopted dog

I’m so happy you found me!

Congratulations on adopting your new rescue dog! You are giving him the best home he has ever had whether he has come from a shelter, a rescue group, or the dog pound.

With a new rescue dog, communication and training are important so that your dog understands how you want him to act. Please don’t assume he automatically knows what you want him to do unless you show him how to behave. Rescue dogs often have been in several different environments – roaming the streets, being in a shelter, being in a foster home – and need guidance from you in their new environment, your home.

The first few days after your new dog comes into your life are important because he begins to learn how to act in his new home. What’s really important is to teach him what you want him to do by giving him some positive guidelines.

Supplies You Need for Your New Rescue or Adopted Dog

Before Leaving the Shelter

Your Car Ride Home

If You Have Another Dog

When You First Get Home

Your Dog’s First Few Days at Home

Training Your New Dog

Supplies You Need for Your New Rescue or Adopted Dog

Find out what food your dog has been eating at the shelter and have that same brand at home. If you’re planning to change his food, it’s best to wait a couple weeks and then gradually make the transition. An abrupt change in his diet may cause diarrhea – and that’s not a pleasant experience for either you or your dog.

Here’s a link to a list of supplies for your new rescue dog.

The shelter workers can advise you about any additional equipment and supplies you need at home.

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Before Leaving the Shelter with Your New Dog

You’ll want your dog to feel comfortable when he gets to your house. So to help him feel at home, bring something from his old home (the shelter) to his new home (your home). Take a cloth towel and ask his caregivers at the shelter to rub the towel on their arms and hands to get their scent on the towel. Then rub the towel on your dog’s playmates at the shelter, and bring this towel home with you. Now your dog can take smells that are familiar to him to his new home. Put this towel in his bed when you put him to sleep at night to help minimize any “first night jitters” he may have.

Ask the shelter caregivers about your dog’s likes and dislikes and any other advice they can give you. They are a wealth of valuable information.

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Your Car Ride Home with Your Newly Adopted Dog

On the way home in the car, be prepared that he may get carsick. Cover your car seats with a blanket and have paper towels ready to clean up.

During his first car ride, teach your dog to ride in the back seat. It’s dangerous for him to ride anywhere in the front seat because he can be severely injured or killed by air bags, or he can distract the driver and cause an accident. If you are driving, please DO NOT let him ride in your lap. It is extremely dangerous. The safest way to transport your dog is in a carrier or crate, or by harnessing him with a seat belt in the back seat.

If you decide not to crate him, then leave the windows open enough so he gets some air but not open too far so he can jump out. A good rule of thumb is to leave them open so he can stick his nose out the window, and that’s about all. Some dogs like to put their heads out the window. Remember that road debris can make its way very easily into your dog’s eyes or nose and cause serious damage.

So he won’t become overly stressed, try not to make any stops where you have to leave your dog alone in the car on his first car ride with you.

If he is afraid of being in the car or of the ride itself, try not to tell him “everything is okay” because although you think you are soothing or reassuring him, he may interpret it as telling him his fear is okay. Act happy and tell him in an upbeat voice what a silly dog he is. Try to get him out of his fearful mood. These first few moments can have a lasting impact.

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Introducing Your New Rescue Dog to Your Resident Dog

If you have another dog, the shelter may have a place where your resident dog can meet your new dog before you bring him home. Even your dogs have been introduced at a shelter, it’s still beneficial to have them meet on neutral territory such as a park before you take your new dog into your home.

  • Ask a friend to take your resident dog to the neutral territory where your new dog can meet your resident dog.
  • Walk parallel paths far enough apart so that both dogs feel comfortable.
  • Don’t try to hurry the introduction. Both dogs should feel comfortable.
  • Begin to walk closer together until you are walking next to each other.
  • Then walk both dogs into your yard together with their leashes on and monitor their interactions.
  • Then go into the house with both dogs, keeping their leashes on.

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When You First Get Home with Your New Dog

Take him to his toilet area first before you go inside your house. (If you have had a prior dog who had accidents in the house, your new dog may not know that his toilet area is not inside the house.) Stay with him in his toilet area until he goes and praise him when he goes there.

Whether you have another dog or not, let your new dog explore the house at his own pace.  Keep him on leash.  Let him have access to just one room at a time. Keep an eye on him so he does not injure himself or get into trouble.

If you have another dog, you will have to decide whether to let your resident dog accompany your new dog during his introduction to your house. Keep both dogs on leashes that are dragging on the ground. If there are any disputes, you can quickly intervene by picking up the leashes rather than grabbing their collars.

This is a good time to take the towel you brought from the shelter and show your new dog where his sleeping area will be. Just show it to him, but don’t force him to go there. After a while, he will want to lie down and rest, and he will naturally go to a place that is familiar to him.

Your friends and neighbors will want to come over to see your new addition, but ask them to wait a few days to let your dog get used to his new home first. If they want to pet him, ask them to move their hand slowly and scratch him under his chin. If they try to pet him on the top of his head, your dog may mistake their gesture and think they are going to hit him, and he may either run away in fear or try to bite. Take control of the situation by talking with your friends and neighbors in advance so that does not happen.

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Your Adopted Dog’s First Few Days at Home

Your new rescue dog’s first few days at home can have a lasting impact on his behavior and your future relationship with him. There generally is a three-month “honeymoon period” with a rescue dog when he is “sizing up” his new home and family. He will generally be on his best behavior during this period, and the way you interact will influence your ultimate relationship.

Petting – When he comes into your home, he probably will be overwhelmed, so don’t put a lot of pressure on him and force him to love you immediately because that may confuse or frighten him. Rather than constantly paying attention to him and trying to show him how terrific you are, let him come to you and then reassure him that he’s welcome. Let him get used to you and your family at his own pace.

Sleeping – The best place for your dog to sleep is in his own bed, preferably a crate, next to your bed. Put the towel you have brought with you from the shelter in that crate. The crate will be his sanctuary and should never be used as punishment.

While You’re at Work – Before you go to work or leave for any extended period of time, help your dog get used to being alone. Start leaving him alone for a few seconds, gradually extending it to a few minutes in his crate throughout his first day home. Leave him a ***add Kong or hollow bone stuffed with yummy treats to keep his mind off your leaving.

Make your departures uneventful and try to ignore him for a few minutes before you leave rather than fussing over him. Leave the radio on to a classical music station. Then return, also being uneventful. Repeat this several times during the day and lengthen the time you are gone.

It’s important not to come back if he begins to bark. If you return when he’s barking, he will think that his barking makes you return, and he may bark incessantly. Then you probably will get complaints from the neighbors.

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Training Your New Rescue Dog

When you bring your dog home, all you want to do is smother him with love and give him a good home for the rest of his life. Whether he was a stray or whether his former owners took him to the shelter themselves, the reason he is at the shelter may be due to some behavior problem that his prior owners did not know how to address.

You have the opportunity to make him a better dog. Set limits by showing him what you want him to do in a way that he understands. He may not intuitively know that getting on the furniture or digging in the backyard is a no-no. In his former home, that may have been okay. Show him what you want him to do rather than punishing him for something he has already done and prevent him from doing things you don’t want him to do — if you don’t want him to drink from the toilet, close the bathroom door!

Obedience training is very important at this point, and begin as soon as you can. Your dog is learning whether you are teaching him or not. It’s a lot easier to teach him what you want him to do when he first comes into your life than to have to erase things and reteach later on.

If your rescue dog is a puppy, please refer to ***add New Puppy for information specifically relating to puppies. If your new rescue dog is an adult, you can get additional information from Problem Solving Strategies.

Remember that changing habits doesn’t take place overnight. Give yourself and your dog a chance.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. Do you have a rescue or adopted dog? Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

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Los Angeles Municipal Code Regarding Dogs

Los Angeles Municipal Code
Regarding Dogs

dog with los angeles municipal code regarding dogs

Dog law!

Over the years, the City of Los Angeles has sought to improve conditions for animals and people by creating and supporting laws that govern the care of animals and their interactions with humans. Many of these laws are found in the Los Angeles Municipal Code (“LAMC”), and some are found in State law. (Read the law for a full description, including exceptions.) Los Angeles Animal Services is responsible to enforce the laws.

This is a brief summary of some of the laws in the City of Los Angeles Municipal Code regarding dogs.

All dogs must be spayed or neutered after four months old although there are some exceptions. If you breed your dog, you must obtain a breeding permit. All dogs who are granted exceptions must be microchipped.

Dogs must be licensed by the City.

Dog animal abuse and cruelty is illegal and is punishable with fines and the offender may have to serve time in jail.

Dogs can’t leave dogs in cars where it endangers the dog – too hot, too cold, no ventilation or water, etc.

Dogs can’t be tied up for long periods of time and there are special conditions where they may be restrained for short periods, which include they must have water and shade.

Dogs cannot bark where they cause a nuisance to neighbors.

Dangerous dogs are illegal. This includes dogs that attack, threaten, or menace a person or animal.

Your dog must be on leash if it taken off your residence or property.

Dog owners must clean up after your dog if he poops in public.

Dogs may not be sold on the streets of Los Angeles.

What follows is a brief summary of the key laws affecting LA’s animals and their owners. Please refer to the Code sections for the full text. (Only the Code affecting dogs is included here.)

Animal Abuse and Cruelty

Animals Left in Cars

Anti-Tethering Laws

Barking Dogs

Breeding

Dangerous Dogs

Dog Poop

Keeping Animals Outdoors

Leash Law

Licensing

Micro-chip

Selling Animals

Spay and Neuter

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Animal Abuse and Cruelty

Abusing or failing to properly care for any animal is against the law and is punishable with fines and possible jail time. This includes participation in dog and cock fighting. L.A. Animal Services is constantly on the lookout for evidence of abuse, and the Animal Cruelty Task Force works with the City Attorney and District Attorney to investigate and prosecute abuse and cruelty cases. You can call to report cruelty at 213-847-1417. Various State and local laws.

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Animals Left in Cars

You may not leave an animal in any unattended motor vehicle under conditions (such as heat, cold, lack of ventilation or water) that endanger the health of the animal or may be expected to cause suffering or death. State Penal Code 597.7.

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Anti-Tethering Laws

Dog owners who tie up their animals for long periods of time or deny them the proper level of water and shelter face stiff financial penalties. State law specifically sets a limit: dogs may not be tied, chained, or otherwise restrained to a stationary object for more than 3 hours in a 24-hour period. Under State law, violations could result in an infraction or misdemeanor punishable by a fine up to $1,000 per dog and/or six months in jail. Section 53.70 of the LAMC.

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Barking Dogs

You cannot allow your dog to bother your neighbors with excessive barking. Failure to control barking that unreasonably interfers with your neighbors could lead to the imposition of strict conditions by LA Animal Services, or eventually you could lose your your dog and lose the right to own a dog for three years. Section 53.63 of the LAMC.

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Breeding

If you breed your animal, whether on purpose or by accident, you must obtain a breeding permit, which costs $100. Section 53.15 of the LAMC.

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Dangerous Dogs

It is illegal to allow your dog to assault, menace or threaten another person or other animal. Failure to control your dog could result in losing your dog and the right to own a dog for three years. Section 53.34 of the LAMC.

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Dog Poop

Dog owners are required to clean up after their dogs when taking them out in public. Failure to do so could lead to stiff fines. Bring a bag when you take your dog for a walk! Section 53.49 of the LAMC.

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Keeping Animals Outdoors

L.A. Animal Services sets the minimum distance that all animals (except horses) may be kept from houses, schools, businesses, and other buildings. Dogs, cats, rabbits, and farm animals must be kept 35 feet from the owner’s house, and 75 feet from all other buildings. Rules and distances for keeping horses are similar, but are set in the Land Use section of the LAMC, Section 12.00. Section 53.59 of the LAMC.

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Leash Law

If you take or allow your dog off your property or place of residence, you must have him or her on a leash. Failure to do so could result in a stiff fine. There are a number of dog parks in the city where it is legal to let your dog off-leash, but no beaches at present. Section 53.06 of the LAMC.

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Licensing

All dogs residing in the City must be licensed. Horses must also have a license, which costs $14 per year. A license for a spayed or neutered dog costs $15 per year, while a license for an unaltered dog costs $100 per year. Contact L.A. Animal Services for information for City free and subsidized spay and neutering services and vouchers. Section 53.15 of the LAMC.

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Micro-chip

Getting your dog micro-chipped makes identification and return of a lost pet quick and easy if he or she ends up in the possession of L.A. Animal Services. Also, as part of the new law requiring spay or neuter of dogs and cats, any dog or cat that is exempt from the requirement and remains intact must be micro-chipped. Section 53.15.2 of the LAMC.

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Selling Animals

There are strict laws restricting the selling of animals within the City of Los Angeles. Outdoor and sidewalk sales are generally prohibited and sales of dogs and cats require special permits from L.A. Animal Services. Selling animals usually also requires obtaining a business license from the City of Los Angeles. Section 53.42 of the LAMC, and other LAMC sections.

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Spay and Neuter

All dogs and cats residing in the City of Los Angeles must be spayed or neutered unless they meet certain medical criteria, are active show or service dogs, or are licensed for breeding purposes. Stiff fines and penalties can be assessed for persistent failure to comply. If you adopted your dog or cat from an animal shelter, state law requires that it be spayed or neutered before you will be allowed to take it home unless there is a valid medical reason for delaying the surgery. Section 53.15.2 of the LAMC.

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PLEASE NOTE: What follows is the text of the Los Angeles Municipal Code regarding dogs. It is NOT the full text of the Code.

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ANIMALS AND FOWLS

Editor’s Note: The Department of Animal Regulation and the Board of Animal Regulation Commissioners were renamed “Department of Animal Services” and “Board of Animal Services Commissioners,” respectively, by Ord. No. 174,735, Eff. 9/13/02.

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SEC. 53.00. DEFINITIONS.

For the purpose of this article, the following words and phrases are defined and shall be construed as hereinafter set out unless it shall be apparent from the context that a different meaning is intended.

“Animal” shall mean any animal, poultry, bird, reptile, fish or any other dumb creature.

“Board” shall mean the Board of Animal Services Commission unless otherwise specifically designated.

“Cat” shall mean any cat of either sex, of any age.

“Cat Kennel” shall mean any lot, building, structure, enclosure, or premises, where four or more cats are kept or maintained for any purpose. (Amended by Ord. No. 162,538, Eff. 8/27/87.)

“Department” shall mean the Department of Animal Services unless otherwise specifically designated.

“Dog” shall mean any dog of either sex, of any age.

“Dog Kennel” shall mean any lot, building, structure, enclosure, or premises, where four or more dogs are kept or maintained for any purpose. (Amended by Ord. No. 162,538, Eff. 8/27/87.)

“General Manager” shall mean General Manager of the Department.

“Impounded” shall mean having been received into the custody of the Municipal pound or into the custody of the Department or any authorized agent or representative thereof.

“Kennel” shall mean any lot, building, structure or premises whereon or wherein four or more dogs are kept or maintained for any purpose.

“Pet Shop” shall mean any store, or department of any store, or any place of business, where dogs, cats, monkeys, birds, reptiles, or any other animals are kept for sale, for hire, or sold.

“Unlicensed Dog” shall mean any dog for which the license for the current year has not been paid or whose license has been revoked by the Department. (Amended by Ord. No. 162,538, Eff. 8/27/87.)

“Vaccination” or “Vaccination Against Rabies”, shall mean inoculation of a dog with a vaccine approved by and in a manner prescribed by the State Department of Public Health. (Amended by Ord. No. 162,538, Eff. 8/27/87.)

“Zoo” shall mean any place where a collection of wild animals, or wild and domesticated animals, are kept for exhibition or for view by the public.

The Department of Animal Services (formerly, “Department of Animal Regulation”) has the power and duty to enforce all ordinances of the City of Los Angeles and penal laws of the State relative to the care and impoundment of dumb animals, for the prevention of cruelty to animals, and to enforce ordinances relative to the payment of money for licenses for animals within the City.

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SEC. 53.03. INSPECTIONS.

(Amended by Ord. No. 136,242, Eff. 4/19/68.)

(a) Whenever it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce any of the provisions of or perform any duty imposed by this Code or other applicable law, or whenever the General Manager or his authorized representative has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in any building or upon any premises any violation of the provisions of this article or other applicable law, the General Manager or his authorized representative is hereby authorized to enter such property at any reasonable time and to inspect the same and perform any duty imposed upon the General Manager by this Code or other applicable law; provided that:

(1) If such property be occupied, he shall first present proper credentials to the occupant and request entry explaining his reason therefor; and

(2) If such property be unoccupied, he shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other persons having charge or control of the property and request entry, explaining his reasons therefor. If such entry is refused or cannot be obtained because the owner or other person having charge or control of the property cannot be found after due diligence, the General Manager or his authorized representative shall have recourse to every remedy provided by law to secure lawful entry and inspect the property.

(b) Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the General Manager or his authorized representative has reasonable cause to believe that the keeping or the maintaining of any animal is so hazardous, unsafe or dangerous as to require immediate inspection to safeguard the animal or the public health or safety, he shall have the right immediately to enter and inspect such property, and may use any reasonable means required to effect such entry and make such inspection, whether such property be occupied or unoccupied and whether or not permission to inspect has been obtained. If the property be occupied, he shall first present proper credentials to the occupant and demand entry, explaining his reasons therefor and purpose of his inspection.

(c) No person shall fail or refuse, after proper demand has been made upon him as provided in Subsection (b), of this section to permit the General Manager or his authorized representative to make any inspection provided for by subsection (b) of this section. Any person violating this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

(d) The permittee of any permit issued pursuant to this article, by accepting such permit, does thereby consent and agree to the entry upon the premises described in the permit by the General Manager or his authorized representative for the purpose of conducting such inspections as are required by this article or other applicable law.

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SEC. 53.04. UNENCLOSED PREMISES, IMPOUNDING.

The General Manager and the authorized employees of the Department and all police officers of this City are hereby given the power and authority, and it is declared to be their duty, to go upon unenclosed lots or lands for the purpose of taking up and impounding any animal found running at large thereon or staked, herded, or grazed thereon, contrary to the provisions of this article.

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SEC. 53.05. IMPOUNDING. DUTY OF POLICE.

It shall be the duty of the General Manager or his authorized representatives to take up and impound in the City pound, and it shall be the duty of members of the Police Department on duty during the hours when the Municipal Pound is open, to take up and immediately deliver to the Department those animals which are authorized and directed to be taken up and impounded by this article or which are found or kept contrary to the provisions of this article.

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SEC. 53.06. ANIMALS AT LARGE.

No person owning or having possession, charge, custody or control of any animal, except cats which are not in heat or season, shall cause, permit or allow the animal to stray, run, or in any manner to be at large in or upon any public street, sidewalk or park, except as otherwise expressly provided in section 63.44 of this Code, or in the bed of the Los Angeles River or upon any unenclosed lot or land. (Amended by Ord. No. 160,401, Eff. 11/1/85.)

A municipality may, under its police power, enact Ordinances prohibiting animals from running at large.

Amyx J. Tabor C 1863 23 C 370.

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SEC. 53.06.2. RESTRAINT OF DOGS.

(Amended by Ord. No. 160,401, Eff. 11/1/85.)

(a) Every person owning or having charge, care, custody or control of any dog shall keep such dog exclusively upon his own premises provided, however, that such dog may be off such premises if it be under the control of a competent person and restrained by a substantial chain or leash not exceeding six feet in length, or under the control of a competent person on a dog exercise or training area established pursuant to section 63.44 of this Code.

(b) (Amended by Ord. No. 162,538, Eff. 8/27/87.) Notwithstanding any other provision of this code, every violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be punishable as an infraction as follows:

1. Upon a first conviction, by a fine of twenty-five dollars ( $25 ) .

2. Upon a second conviction, and the offense occurred within one year of a prior violation of this section which resulted in a conviction, by a fine of forty-five dollars ( $45 ).

3. Upon a third or subsequent conviction, and the offense occurred within one year of a prior violation of this section which resulted in a second or subsequent conviction, by a fine of sixty-five dollars ($65).

This section is not unconstitutional and is substantially and fundamentally different from Ordinance No. 55,665.

People v. Barnsdall 1945, CR A 2103.

“Whatever may be said about the affection which mankind has for a faithful companion, modern city conditions no longer permit dogs to run at large.”

Brotemarkel v. Snyder 1950, 99 CAC 388, 390.

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SEC. 53.09. STRAY ANIMALS. NOTICE REQUIRED.

(a) (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.) Any person finding at any time any stray domestic animal or any such animal found running at large contrary to the provisions of this article may take up such animal; provided, however, that persons taking up such animal shall, within four hours thereafter, or within two hours thereafter if such animal is attached or hitched to a vehicle, give notice to the Department or to some police officer, of the fact that he has such animal in his possession, and shall furnish thereto a description of such animal and a statement of the place where he found and where he has confined the animal.

In case such notice is given to any police officer, such officer shall immediately notify the Department and shall furnish all the information which has been obtained regarding such animal.

If the taking up of such animal occurs at a time when the Public Pound is not open for the transaction of business, the notice required herein shall be made to the Department within the time herein required after such pound is again open for business.

(b) Any person taking up any such stray animal found running at large or contrary to the provisions of this article shall surrender such animal to the General Manager of the Department or his duly authorized representative upon demand thereof.

(c) No person taking up any animal shall fail or neglect to give notice thereof as required by this section or fail or refuse to surrender such animal to the General Manager or his duly authorized representative upon demand therefor.

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SEC. 53.10. PERMITTING ANIMALS TO GO WITHOUT CARE – DUTY TO ENTER AND REMOVE SAME.

(a) Whenever animals are kept within any building or on any premises without food, water or proper care and attention, it shall be the duty of any departmental employee to enter said building or premises to take possession of and remove said animals so abandoned or neglected. Such entry shall be effected in accordance with Section 53.03 of this article. (Amended by Ord. No. 136,242, Eff. 4/19/68.)

(b) Every person maintaining a commercial building, structure or premises, where animals are kept for commercial purposes, shall cause a notice, framed and enclosed under glass, containing the names, addresses and telephone numbers of persons to be notified during any hour of the day or night who will proceed immediately to the location so as to permit entry to the premises by representatives of the Department, to be posted on the premises near the entrance, said notice to be in such a position as to be legible from the sidewalk or ground level adjacent to the building. (Amended by Ord. No. 150,337, Eff. 1/1/78.)

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SEC. 53.11. ANIMALS. IMPOUNDING – SALE.

(a) The Department shall hold any stray animal, including any horse, mule, burro, cattle, goat, sheep and other live stock, except dogs, cats, rabbits, birds, poultry, or any other miscellaneous stray animals, impounded under the provisions of this article for a period of three (3) days during which time the owner of such animal, if known, shall be notified, after which time said animal may be sold by an officer of the Department as follows: Written or printed notice of sale at public auction, stating the time and place of sale and containing a description of the animal to be sold, must be posted for five (5) days on the bulletin boards of three (3) public buildings, namely: One (1) at the Public Pound; one (1) at the City Hall, and one (1) at the Central Police Station;

(b) In the case of dogs, the Department of Animal Services shall hold such animal for a period of one (1) day after the impounding of said animal, during which time the owner of said animal, if known, shall be notified, after which time said animal may be sold by an officer of the Department in the same manner as provided in this section for the sale of other animals except that notice of sale need be posted only two (2) days in the places named in this section. The purchaser of such dog shall procure the required license for the current year.

(c) Cats, rabbits, birds, poultry, and other animals not hereinabove mentioned shall be disposed of as in the case of dogs except that no license fee shall be charged.

(d) In addition to the posting of any notice of impounding or of the sale of any dog or other animal as hereinbefore provided, said General Manager is hereby authorized, whenever the same shall, in the judgment of the General Manager, be expedient or proper, to publish a notice in any newspaper of general circulation published in this City containing the same information as the notice of sale as above provided.

(e) If any animal is not redeemed or sold, the General Manager of the Department may continue to hold for subsequent sale said animal in accordance with the terms as hereinbefore set forth, or order the destruction of such animal. Said General Manager or other duly authorized representative of the Department shall execute a bill of sale to the purchaser of any animal sold and thereupon the title to such animal shall be vested in such purchaser.

(f) When any animal is sold under the provisions of this Article, from the proceeds of such sale shall be deducted the regular pound fee, and, in the case of livestock, the cost of care and feed of such animal, and in the case of dogs, the license for the current year. Any sum of money which remains over and above said fees may be claimed by the owner of said animal so sold, upon satisfactory proof of ownership being made to the Department within sixty (60) days from the date of sale, provided, however, that the owner did not voluntarily surrender said animal to the Department. (Amended by Ord. No. 150,337, Eff. 1/1/78.)

(g) Whenever any dog has been impounded as in this section provided, and the owner thereof has not redeemed the same within the time for such redemption prescribed by this article, and after notice has been posted on the bulletin boards of three public buildings as in this ordinance prescribed of the time and place of the sale of said dog, and when the owner of said dog has not appeared at said sale as so noticed, the Department of Animal Services without offering said dog for sale at public auction, is hereby authorized, upon the request of any of the armed forces of the United States to deliver the dog to said armed forces of the United States without any cost, charge, fee or expense whatsoever, and to execute a bill of sale for said dog to said armed force or forces.

(h) (None)

(i) Any purchaser of a dog or cat may within ten (10) days after such purchase exchange such dog or cat if said animal has been examined by a veterinarian or by an authorized departmental representative and determined to be physically or otherwise unsuitable for placement. If the charges for the substituted dog or cat are greater than the amount paid for the original, the purchaser shall pay the difference. No refund shall be made if the price of the substituted dog or cat is less than the amount paid for the original. An exchange must be consummated within 31 calendar days from the original purchase date and no part of the purchase price shall be refunded even if a purchaser is unable to make satisfactory exchange within the prescribed period. (Added by Ord. No. 137,182, Eff. 10/7/68.)

(j) (None)

(k) (None)

(l) Release by Department. (Added by Ord. No. 106,995, Eff. 3/24/56.)

1. Vaccinated Dog. An impounded dog that has been vaccinated against rabies or exempted therefrom by an exemption certificate as provided in this article may be released to the owner or other person desiring to possess the dog upon the payment of the fees and license tax required by this article.

2. Unvaccinated Dog – Purchaser. Any person desiring to purchase an impounded unvaccinated dog, not previously owned by said person, must pay the fees and license tax required by this article and furnish a signed statement in compliance with Sec. 53.52 hereof or comply with the conditions of subdivision 3 hereof.

3. Conditional Release of Unvaccinated Dog to Owner. Every person receiving a dog from the Department pursuant to this subdivision shall comply with all of the conditions prescribed herein. An impounded dog that has not been vaccinated against rabies or exempted therefrom by an exemption certificate as provided in this article may be released by the Department to the owner of the dog on condition that such owner:

(i) Pay the fees and license tax required by this article; and

(ii) Furnish to the Department at the time of release his signed statement that he will have the dog vaccinated within 10 days;

(iii) Have the dog vaccinated for rabies within 10 days; and

(iv) Exhibit a certificate of vaccination to the Department within 10 days at which time the license will be issued.

(m) No person shall make a false or misleading statement or representation regarding the ownership or right to custody or control of an animal for which a permit or license is required, or regarding the ownership of an animal redeemed from, turned over to, impounded by or coming under the jurisdiction of the Department pursuant to this article.

(n) The General Manager or his authorized representative may immunize any impounded dog or cat against common diseases. (Amended by Ord. No. 149,942, Eff. 8/19/77.)

(o) Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, the General Manager shall have the power to waive all or any portion of the fees prescribed in Sections 53.12 and 53.15.3 of this article on as many as three separate days in any calendar year in order to encourage and promote pet adoptions, or more frequently upon the release of any animal by the Department to another municipal or county animal control agency, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), humane organization, or to a rescue organization, that meet the eligibility requirements of the Participant Shelter Program and enter into an agreement with the Department, for further adoption pursuant to this section. In addition, the General Manager shall also have the power to waive all or any portion of the electronic animal identification device (microchip) fees prescribed in Section 53.15.5 of this article upon the release of any animal by the Department to another municipal or county animal control agency, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) or humane organization and to refund all or any portion of the fees to a rescue organization, upon their entering into an agreement with the Department. (Amended by Ord. No. 176,577, Eff. 5/22/05.)

(p) The General Manager may waive all or any portion of the fees charged upon the release of any animal which has been held by the Department for the legal holding period, to a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), humane organization, another municipal or county animal control agency, or to a rescue organization that meet the eligibility requirements of the Participant Shelter Program and enter into an agreement with the Department. The designation of an animal as releasable shall be in accordance with the Department’s policies concerning the sale of such animals. A fee waiver will be made only upon the condition that any animal so released may not be sold by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), humane organization, the municipal or county animal control agency, or the rescue organization.

Humane organizations or societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals are organizations which are California nonprofit corporations which perform humane services and are incorporated under the provisions of California Corporations Code Section 10400 and the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law in Part 2 of the California Corporations Code, beginning at Section 5110. For the purposes of this section, rescue organizations are defined as California non-profit corporations that are exempt from taxation under Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3), participate in early age spay/neuter of animals, comply with all State and local laws regarding the humane care and treatment of animals, and in addition, whose mission is wholly or in part the rescue and placement of companion animals including but not limited to dogs, cats, rabbits, gerbils, hamsters, birds, equine animals or reptiles, and/or the trapping, neutering and returning of feral cats. (Amended by Ord. No. 176,577, Eff. 5/22/05.)

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SEC. 53.12. POUND FEES.

(Amended by Ord. No. 171,024, Eff. 5/23/96.)

(a) (Amended by Ord. No. 178,346, Eff. 3/1/07.) The Department shall charge and collect the following fees:

For each dog sold
$5.00

For each cat sold
$5.00

For each dog redeemed, first occurrence
$25.00

For each dog redeemed, second occurrence
$35.00

For each dog redeemed, third and subsequent occurrences
$45.00

For feeding each dog sold
$3.00

For feeding and caring for each dog redeemed
$2.00 per day

 

For immunizing each dog redeemed
$4.00

For immunizing each dog sold
$4.00

For impounding any dog, cat or small animal which is brought in by its owner, or its owner’s agent
$5.00

For impounding any litter under four months old which is brought in by its owner, or its owner’s agent
$10.00

For impounding any dog, cat or small animal which is picked up at the request of its owner, or its owner’s agent
$20.00

For impounding any litter under four months old which is picked up at the request of its owner, or its owner’s agent
$30.00

(b) No fees whatsoever shall be charged or collected for or on account of any animal which has been unlawfully taken up or impounded, and any such animal shall be immediately delivered upon demand therefor to the owner or person entitled to the custody thereof.

(c) For veterinary services furnished to animals by the Department:

1. If furnished by a private veterinarian at the request of the Department, the fee to be charged and collected shall be the total of the actual bill to the Department plus $2.00 for Department administrative expenses.

2. If furnished by a City veterinarian, the fees shall be charged and collected pursuant to a fee schedule to be established by the General Manager.

Said fee schedule shall take into account the reasonable expense of supplying the services including such factors as direct costs of the services and department overhead.

(d) The Department shall not charge and collect a fee for each dog or cat redeemed by its owner who is a disabled individual or is 62 years of age or older provided that the combined adjusted gross income (as used for purposes of the California Personal Income Tax Law) of all members of the household in which such individual resides during the calendar year prior to the date the dog or cat was redeemed was less than the “very low income” limitation for a family of two persons in the City of Los Angeles, as determined by the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, and published by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. For each fiscal year, the General Manager is directed to determine, and utilize as that year’s adjusted gross income limitation, the figure in effect on the first day of April preceding the start of the fiscal year.

(e) The Department shall not charge and collect a fee for each animal, or litter under four months old, which is impounded, other than an animal suspected of rabies which is impounded for the purpose of quarantine, provided that the combined adjusted gross income (as used for purposes of the California Personal Income Tax Law) of all members of the household in which the owner resides during the calendar year prior to the date the animal was impounded was less than the “very low income” limitation for a family of two persons in the City of Los Angeles, as determined by the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, and published by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. For each fiscal year, the General Manager is directed to determine, and utilize as that year’s adjusted gross income limitation, the figure in effect on the first day of April preceding the start of the fiscal year.

(f) For purposes of this section, an individual shall be considered to be disabled if he or she is unable to engage in substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or to be of long continued and indefinite duration.

(g) The entire $40.00 fee for each rabbit sold or redeemed shall be deposited into the Animal Sterilization Fund. (Added by Ord. No. 177,867, Eff. 10/2/06.)

(h) The Department may waive the fees imposed for spaying or neutering as well as the fees imposed by Section 53.15.5 for implanting an electronic animal identification device for a second or subsequent animal adopted along with an animal whose adoption fees were paid for in full where the animals have bonded with each other. (Added by Ord. No. 179,036, Eff. 9/18/07.)

(i) The Department may waive any or all of the adoption fees for any impounded animal that is seven years of age or older, if adopted by an individual 62 years of age or older who will own and maintain that animal. This authorization for waiving the fees will cease to be in effect on September 30, 2008. (Added by Ord. No. 179,440, Eff. 1/26/08.)

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SEC. 53.12.1. UNCARED FOR ANIMALS – IMPOUNDING.

(Amended by Ord. No. 170,754, Eff. 12/14/95.)

Whenever the Department finds that any animal is or will be without proper care because of injury, illness, incarceration or other involuntary absence of the person responsible for the care of such animal, the Department may impound such animal until it is reclaimed by its owner or the owner’s agent. The owner, or his or her agent, must pay the pound fees prescribed by Section 53.12 prior to the release of such animals by the Department. Any animal which has been impounded and not reclaimed within thirty days may be disposed of by the Department pursuant to Section 53.11.

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SEC. 53.12.2 IMPOUNDMENT OF UNALTERED DOGS AND CATS – CIVIL PENALTIES.

(Added by Ord. No. 175,082, Eff. 3/25/03.)

The owner of a nonspayed or unneutered dog or cat that is impounded by the Department shall be assessed a civil penalty of thirty-five dollars ($35) on the first occurrence, fifty dollars ($50) on the second occurrence, and one hundred dollars ($100) for the third or subsequent occurrence for each dog and cat so impounded.

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SEC. 53.13. REDEMPTION FEES.

(Amended by Ord. No. 152,043, Eff. 4/14/79.)

(a) The owner or person entitled to the custody of any animal taken up and impounded under the provisions of this article, may, at any time before the sale or disposal thereof as provided in this article, redeem such animal by paying the Department the fees, charges, and, in the case of dogs which are unlicensed, by paying in addition thereto the licenses prescribed by this article accruing up to the time of such redemption.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, a person who has relinquished a stray dog or cat to the Department may, until 9:00 a.m. on the first day the animal becomes available for sale and not thereafter, redeem such animal by paying to the Department the fees, charges, and, in the case of dogs which are unlicensed, by paying in addition thereto the licenses prescribed by this article accruing up to the time of such redemption. (Amended by Ord. No. 166,172, Eff. 9/29/90.)

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SEC. 53.14. RECORDS OF IMPOUNDED ANIMALS.

The department shall keep a record of each animal impounded by it, the date of receipt of such animals, the date and manner of its disposal, and if redeemed, reclaimed, or sold, the name of the person by whom redeemed, reclaimed, or purchased, the address of such person, and the amounts of all fees received or collected for or because of the impounding, reclaiming, or purchasing thereof, together with the number of any tag and the date of any license exhibited or issued upon the redemption or sale of any such animal.

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SEC. 53.15. DOG LICENSE TAX – PENALTIES.

(Amended by Ord. No. 157,035, Eff. 10/4/82.) (Second unnumbered para., Amended by Ord. No. 161,137, Eff. 5/25/86.)

(a) Any person owning or having custody or control of any dog shall pay, for the privilege of keeping such dog, a license tax of $8.50 for each dog over the age of four months, except that for spayed females or neutered male dogs, or any dog certified by a licensed veterinarian to be incapable of breeding or being bred, the tax shall be $3.50. Such license tax shall not apply to any dog kept or maintained exclusively in any dog kennel. The license tax imposed hereunder shall be due and payable by the owner or custodian of such dog upon acquisition of said dog, upon the dog’s reaching the age of four months, or upon notification by the Department that any previously issued license has expired and that such license tax is due and payable. Thereafter, except as otherwise permitted herein, such license tax shall become due and payable annually by such person on the date of expiration of any license previously issued for such dog. The license shall expire one year from the date of issuance or, in the event a license has been previously issued, one year from the date of expiration of such previously issued license, and shall be renewable annually upon payment of the appropriate license tax. However, the owner or custodian of such dog may choose the option of paying the license tax for said dog for a period of two years. In such event the license issued shall expire two years from the date of issuance or, in the event a license has been previously issued, two years from the date of expiration of the previously issued license. Upon payment of the license tax imposed hereunder, and the payment of the license fee imposed under Section 53.15.3 of this Code, the Department shall issue a license and a metal tag with the number thereof, together with the words “L.A. Dog License” plainly inscribed thereon. No portion of the license tax shall be refunded in the event ownership, custody or control of any dog is terminated during the license period.

The metal tag issued with the license shall be a permanent tag and shall be replaced only upon proof of loss or change of ownership.

A written certificate, signed by a licensed veterinarian, containing a full description of such dog as to its breed, color, sex, age and name, and reciting the fact that the female dog has been spayed or the male dog neutered or reciting the reasons why the veterinarian otherwise deems the dog described therein incapable of breeding or being bred, shall be exhibited to the person issuing a license in order to qualify for the lower tax specified herein.

The General Manager may accept other satisfactory evidence of spaying or neutering in lieu of such certificate where it is unavailable.

(b) The Department may issue a free license for any dog duly and properly trained to aid or assist any person who is blind, deaf or physically handicapped when the dog is actually being used to aid or assist such blind, deaf, or physically handicapped person. (Amended by Ord. No. 162,486, Eff. 7/18/87.)

(c) Provided, that the Department may transfer without charge the license for any dog exchanged through provisions of Subsection (i) of Section 53.11, unless pursuant to Subsection (a) of this section, the licensed tax charged for a dog taken in exchange for one brought back to the Department would be higher, in which case the license may be transferred only upon the payment of the additional amount. (Amended by Ord. No. 142,491, Operative 10/1/71.)

(d) (Amended by Ord. No. 150,817, Eff. 6/10/78, Oper. 7/1/78.) No license for a dog shall be issued unless the owner shall have paid the license tax provided therefor, and shall have exhibited to a duly authorized employee of the Department a certificate of anti-rabies vaccination of the dog, signed by a duly licensed veterinarian, except as provided in Section 53.52 of this article.

No dog license shall be issued for any dog as to which the rabies vaccination will provide immunization for a period of less than 60 days from the date of issuance.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Subsection (a) of this section, any license issued by the Department shall expire on the date upon which the anti-rabies vaccination ceases to immunize the dog for which the license has been issued. In the event such immunization ceases to be effective prior to the termination of the annual licensing period, the owner shall be notified in writing of such expiration, at the address last known to the Department, prior to the date upon which immunization ceases to be effective. Said expired license may be renewed for the balance of the annual licensing period, without payment of any additional tax, upon presentation to the Department of a new certificate of vaccination showing effective immunization for the balance of such licensing period.

(e) The Department shall initiate action against the owner of any dog found without a current active license or without a certificate of rabies vaccination indicating such dog is immune to rabies as required by this section. (Amended by Ord. No. 150,817, Eff. 6/10/78, Oper. 7/1/78.)

(f) The Department shall issue one free license for one dog to any disabled individual or to any individual 62 years of age or older who owns and maintains said dog, provided that the combined adjusted gross income (as used for purposes of the California Personal Income Tax Law) of all members of the household in which such individual resides during the calendar year prior to the date on which application for the license is made was less than Eleven Thousand Five Hundred ($11,500.00) for said calendar year. (First para., Subsec. (f), Amended by Ord. No. 161,044, Eff. 5/4/86.)

For the purpose of this subsection, an individual shall be considered to be disabled if he or she is unable to engage in substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or to be of long continued and indefinite duration.

The dog for which application for a free license is made must be a spayed female, a neutered male, or a dog certified by a licensed veterinarian to be incapable of breeding or being bred. Evidence that a dog is spayed or neutered, or incapable of breeding or being bred shall be provided by the owner to the Department in the same manner and form as is specified in Subsection (a) of this section. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Department may issue a free license to a qualified disabled individual or qualified senior citizen for any dog that has not been spayed or neutered provided the applicant signs a statement provided by the Department agreeing to have the dog spayed or neutered within 90 days by a veterinarian of the owner’s choice or free of charge in one of the City’s Spay and Neuter Clinics. Proof that such dog was spayed or neutered shall be provided by the applicant to the Department within said period. If the applicant fails to provide such proof within said period, the applicant shall be liable for the Dog License Tax due pursuant to Subsection (a) of this section.

No individual may apply for, be issued, or possess more than one free license at any given time, and no more than one free license per household shall be issued. The provisions of this subsection shall not eliminate the duty of any individual to apply for and obtain a license for each dog owned by said individual.

Any individual who is entitled to a free license under the provisions of this subsection may file an application with the Department for such a license. The license shall be automatically rendered invalid by any change in ownership of said dog. It shall be a misdemeanor for any person to knowingly receive the benefits of the free license provided for by this subsection when the basis for such free license either does not exist or ceases to exist.

For each fiscal year commencing with the 1991-92 fiscal year the General Manager is directed to determine, and utilize as the prior calendar year’s adjusted gross income limitation, the figure in effect on the preceding first day of April as the “very low income” limitation for a family of two persons in the City of Los Angeles, as determined by the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, and published by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Added by Ord. 167,134, Eff. 9/1/91.

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SEC. 53.15.2. BREEDING AND TRANSFER OF DOGS AND CATS.

(Amended by Ord. No. 173,168, Eff. 5/18/00, Oper. 11/15/00.)

The City Council finds that there exists a serious pet overpopulation problem within the City, that has resulted in a threat to public safety and health, inhumane treatment of animals, mass euthanasia of dogs/cats at the local animal shelters and escalating costs for animal care and control. Further, the Board of Animal Services Commissioners has found that uncontrolled breeding is the cause and, without action aimed at the source, this problem and its serious consequences will remain unabated. Council finds that part of the solution is for all dogs and cats over the age of four months to be spayed or neutered, unless their owners purchase the appropriate licenses/permits for the privilege of maintaining the animal intact and allowing it to breed. Council also finds that an increase in the license fee for unaltered dogs will encourage the owners to spay/neuter their dog(s), in order to qualify for the much lower altered dog license fee. Further, Council finds that tighter regulation of the transfer of dogs and cats will help alleviate the City’s pet overpopulation crisis by allowing increased City control over the transfer of dogs and cats.

(a) Animal Ownership:

Animal Owner, for purposes of this section, shall mean any person harboring, keeping or providing care or sustenance to a domestic animal for 30 or more consecutive days on property which he/she owns, rents or leases. Such a person shall be subject to the requirements of this chapter. This definition does not apply to government agencies, animal rescue organizations which have demonstrated to the Department that they have implemented an ongoing spay/neuter program as well as an adoption program, or humane societies or societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals if such societies are incorporated under the provisions of California Corporations Code Section 10400 and the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law in Part 2 of the California Corporations Code, beginning at Section 5110 and successor sections.

(b) Intact Cats:

No person who owns a cat over the age of four months shall cause, permit, or allow such cat to be in a public place unsupervised, unless the cat is spayed or neutered. The term public place shall include, but not be limited to, streets, highways, sidewalks, carnivals, shopping malls, flea markets, boardwalks, and areas in front of commercial establishments. This requirement applies to all unaltered cats, whether or not their owner(s) have obtained breeding permits pursuant to Subsection (c), below.

(c) Breeding Permit:

(1) No person shall cause or allow any dog or cat owned, harbored or kept within the City of Los Angeles to breed without first obtaining a breeding permit, as described below. The term breeding permit means a written authorization, issued annually by the General Manager, giving its lawful holder permission to breed a dog or a cat.

(2) Each breeding permit shall be valid for one year from the date of issuance, and may be renewed annually, before its expiration date. Each applicant for such a permit shall pay an annual fee of $100.00. A separate permit must be obtained for each owned dog or cat which is allowed to breed.

(3) The Department shall administer an animal breeding permit program to allow the breeding of unaltered dogs and cats consistent with criteria and according to procedures established by the General Manager pursuant to Section 53.58 of this Code. Under no circumstances shall such a permit be issued to a person who has been convicted of animal cruelty or neglect.

(4) In addition to the criteria and procedures established by the General Manager pursuant to Paragraph 3 of this subsection, all breeding permits shall contain the following terms and conditions:

A. The owner of an unaltered female dog or cat shall not allow the whelping of more than one litter in any household within the permit year. Notwithstanding this provision, the General Manager is hereby authorized, upon application of a permittee, to allow on a one time basis the whelping of up to two dog or cat litters per breeding animal within any domestic household within a permit year, if the permittee establishes, according to regulations promulgated by the General Manager, that such breeding is required to protect the health of the animal or avert a substantial economic loss to the permittee. In the event that a permittee is forced to euthanize a litter of dogs or cats, the General Manager may authorize the whelping of one additional litter of dogs or cats within the same permit year by the permittee;

B. No offspring may be sold, adopted, bartered, or otherwise transferred, whether for compensation or otherwise, until it has reached the age of at least eight weeks;

C. No offspring may be sold or adopted until immunized against common diseases. The sale or adoption of a dog or cat shall include a statement signed by the seller or adopter attesting to the signatory’s knowledge of the animal’s health, and the animal’s immunization history;

D. Any holder of a breeding permit who advertises to the public the availability of any dog or cat for sale, adoption, or transfer, whether for compensation or otherwise, must prominently display the permit number in any such advertisement. Further, the breeding permit holder must provide the permit number to any person who purchases, adopts or receives any animal from the permit holder and include the permit number on any receipt of sale or transfer document;

E. Commercial establishments selling locally bred dogs or cats shall prominently display the breeding permit number(s) of the breeder(s) whose dogs and cats are sold in said establishments and any other pertinent information required by the General Manager; Commercial establishments selling dogs and cats which were not bred within the City of Los Angeles shall prominently display the name and address of the breeder(s) of such dogs and cats and any other pertinent information required by the General Manager;

F. Any breeding permit holder selling or otherwise transferring a dog or a cat, whether for compensation or otherwise, shall submit to the Los Angeles Department of Animal Services the name, address, and telephone number of the animal’s new owner within five days from the sale or other transfer, on a Department approved form; and

G. Any breeding permit holder or commercial establishment which sells or otherwise transfers a dog or cat, whether for compensation or otherwise, shall provide to the new animal owner City application(s) for a license and permit as well as written information regarding the license and permit requirements of the City of Los Angeles applicable to such animal.

(5) The following animals are exempt from the breeding permit requirements:

A. Dogs documented as having been appropriately trained and actively used by law enforcement agencies for law enforcement and rescue activities;

B. Dogs documented as guide, signal, or service dogs pursuant to California Penal Code Section 365.5(d), (e) & (f) and successor sections;

C. Dogs and cats certified by a licensed veterinarian as not being suitable subjects for spaying and neutering due to health reasons;

D. Dogs and cats under the care of governmental animal control agencies; animal rescue organizations which have demonstrated to the Department that they have implemented an ongoing spay/neuter plan, as well as an adoption plan; or humane societies or societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals, if such societies are incorporated under the provisions of California Corporations Code Section 10400 and the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law in Part 2 of the California Corporations Code, beginning at Section 5110, and successor sections; and

E. Dogs documented as enrolled in a guide, signal or service dog breeding program administered by a person licensed under Chapter 9.5 (commencing with Section 7200) of Division 3 of the California Business and Professions Code.

(d) Penalties:

(1) Any cat or dog owner found by the Department to be in violation of the breeding permit provisions of this section may correct the violation(s) by providing conclusive proof to the Department that the dog(s) or cat(s) have been spayed or neutered, or by obtaining the necessary permit(s) mentioned in this section, no later than forty five days from the date when the Department had first notified the owner of the violation. Should the owner fail to correct the violation(s) in the manner described above, the Department shall impose a $500.00 civil penalty on the dog or cat owner. Notice of this penalty shall be served by the Department on the dog or cat owner in the manner allowed by Section 11(i) of this Code. This penalty shall not be waived by the Department upon the transfer or abandonment of the dog or cat by the non compliant owner. This penalty shall be imposed in addition to any other applicable civil or criminal penalties.

If the civil penalty mentioned above is not paid and the owner does not spay/neuter his/her dog(s) or cat(s) or obtains the breeding permit(s) required under Subsection (c), above, within fifteen days from the date when the Department first notified the owner of the imposition of the civil penalty mention in Section (d)(1), the continuing violation of the breeding permit requirement of this section becomes a misdemeanor and may be prosecuted as such.

(2) The Department may revoke any permit issued pursuant to this section upon a finding that the permit holder has violated its terms and conditions. Such a finding shall be made after an administrative hearing conducted in accordance with the provisions of Section 53.18.5 of this Code; provided, however, that a finding by the Department’s hearing examiner that such violation had occurred, if this finding is sustained by the General Manager, shall result in the permit’s revocation, notwithstanding the provisions of Section 53.18.5(l) of this Code.

(3) Except as specifically mentioned in Subsection (d)(1) and (2), above, failure to comply with any of the requirements mentioned in Subsections (b) and (c) of Section 53.15.2 of this Code is an infraction punishable by a $50.00 fine for the first occurrence, $75.00 for the second occurrence and $100.00 for each subsequent occurrence.

(e) Sale, Adoption and Other Transfers of Dogs and Cats:

(1) Any person who offers or provides, whether for compensation or otherwise, any dog or cat for sale or other type of transfer, shall disclose to the transferee information regarding the license and permit requirements of the City of Los Angeles applicable to the transferred animal.

(2) No person shall present any dog or cat for sale, adoption, barter, exchange, or adoption, whether for compensation or otherwise, in any public place, without first obtaining a permit pursuant to Los Angeles Municipal Code section 53.50. The term public place shall include, but not be limited to, streets, highways, sidewalks, carnivals, shopping malls, flea markets, boardwalks, and areas in front of commercial establishments. This prohibition shall not apply to:

A. Government agencies; non-profit animal rescue organizations exempt from taxation under Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3); or humane societies or societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals if such societies are incorporated under the provisions of California Corporations Code Section 10400 and the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law in Part 2 of the California Corporations Code, beginning at Section 5110;

B. Permitted dog or cat shows; or

C. Permitted pet stores which sell or otherwise transfer dogs or cats, whether for compensation or otherwise, within the store.

(3) No person shall give away any dog or cat as a prize or as an inducement to enter into any contest, lottery, drawing, game or competition.

(4) No person shall give away any dog or cat as an inducement to enter a place of business, or to enter into a business arrangement.

(5) No person shall sell, barter, exchange or offer for adoption, whether for compensation or otherwise, any dog or cat to any minor under the age of eighteen years, without the written permission of one of the minor’s parents or legal guardians.

(6) Commercial establishments selling dogs and cats which were not bred within the City of Los Angeles shall prominently display the name and address of the breeder(s) of such dogs and cats and any other pertinent information required by the General Manager.

(7) Failure to display the breeding permit number or include it in any advertisement for sale, adoption or other transfer of dogs and cats is an infraction punishable by a $50.00 fine for the first occurrence, $75.00 for the second occurrence and $100.00 for each subsequent occurrence.

(8) Possession of a valid permit under this section of the Code does not entitle the permit holder to engage in an activity which is otherwise prohibited by law.

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SEC. 53.15.3. DOG LICENSE FEE.

(a) (Amended by Ord. No. 177,969, Eff. 11/26/06.) Any person owning or having custody or control of any dog shall pay, in addition to a license tax, a fee in the sum of $91.50 for the processing and related costs of issuance of a dog license, except that for spayed female or neutered male dogs, or any dog certified by a licensed veterinarian to be incapable of breeding or being bred, a fee of $11.50 shall be paid. The provisions of Section 53.15 of this Code with respect to eligibility for the lower license tax specified there shall be equally applicable to eligibility for the lower fee specified in this section. Any person exempt under the provisions of Section 53.15 of this Code from paying the license tax imposed there shall be exempt from paying any license fee imposed by this section. License fees shall be paid annually or biannually on the expiration date of the license at the same time and in the same manner as the license tax. In the event any dog license fee required by this section is not paid within 45 days from the date of expiration of any previously issued dog license, or within 45 days from the date of mailing of notice to secure a license to the owner or custodian of any previously unlicensed dog, the following penalties shall apply:

(1) If the owner fails to obtain the license required in this section, upon the expiration of the 45 days compliance period mentioned above, the Department shall impose a $500.00 civil penalty on the owner. Notice of this penalty shall be served by the Department on the dog owner in the manner allowed by Section 11.00(i) of this Code. This penalty shall not be waived by the Department upon the transfer or abandonment of the dog by the non-compliant owner. This penalty shall be imposed in addition to any other applicable civil or criminal penalties.

(2) If the civil penalty mentioned in Subsection (a)(1), above, is not paid, and the owner fails to obtain the license required under Subsection (a) of this section within fifteen days from the date when the Department first notified the dog owner of the imposition of the civil penalty mention in Section (a)(1) above, the continuing violation of the license requirement of this section becomes a misdemeanor and may be so prosecuted.

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SEC. 53.18.5. REVOCATION OF LICENSE – HEARING PROCEDURES.

(Added by Ord. No. 162,538, Eff. 8/27/87.)

This section shall govern the revocation of dog licenses. For purposes of this section the term “dog” includes the plural and the term “owner” means the owner or person having charge, care or custody of a dog.

(a) Revocation of License. A license revocation hearing shall be held whenever it is found that the owner of any dog whose license has been reissued upon terms, conditions or restrictions pursuant to this section or Section 53.34.4(e)2 has either failed to comply with the terms, conditions or restrictions imposed when the license was reissued, or that the violation continues to exist or reoccurs.

(b) Hearing Examiner. A Hearing Examiner appointed by the General Manager shall exercise all powers relating to the conduct of the hearing, including but not limited to, the administration of oaths and affirmations and to certify to official acts.

(c) Notice of Hearing. The Department shall commence a hearing by issuing to and the serving of a written notice upon the owner of the dog. Notice shall be served at least ten (10) days prior to the date set for the hearing. The notice shall state in clear and concise language:

1. the purpose and reason for holding the hearing and the requested remedy or penalty, and

2. the time and place where the hearing is to be held.

(d) Subpoena Power. (Amended by Ord. No. 173,273, Eff. 6/25/00, Oper. 7/1/00.) The General Manager or his authorized representative is authorized and empowered to summon witnesses for the hearing by requesting the City Clerk, pursuant to Section 217 of the Charter of the City of Los Angeles, to issue subpoenas requiring the attendance of such witnesses at the time and place specified.

(e) Witnesses. At the hearing, the owner of the dog, the complainant or complainants, if any, and the Department shall be given an opportunity to present evidence, and call and cross-examine witnesses.

(f) Continuances. The Hearing Examiner may continue the hearing from time to time upon good cause being shown.

(g) Notice. Any written notice provided for in this section shall be served upon the owner of the dog in the manner provided for giving of notice in Section 11.00 (i) of this Code, or by posting upon property occupied by the owner, or both. Service by posting is complete upon posting.

(h) Evidence. Hearings need not be conducted according to technical rules relating to evidence or witnesses. Any relevant evidence shall be admitted if it is the sort of evidence on which responsible persons are accustomed to rely in conduct of serious affairs, regardless of the existence of any common law or statutory rule which might make improper the admission of such evidence over objection in civil actions. Hearsay evidence may be used for the purpose of supplementing or explaining any direct evidence, but shall not be sufficient in itself to support a finding unless it would be admissible over objection in civil actions. Oral evidence shall be taken only on oath or affirmation.

(i) Reporting. A recording or transcript of the hearing shall be taken.

(j) Burden of Proof. The burden is on the Department to show by a preponderance of the evidence that the allegations made are true.

(k) Hearing Examiner – Report. The Hearing Examiner shall, within 15 days of the conclusion of any hearing, submit a report to the General Manager. The report shall contain a summary of the evidence, including oral testimony, and shall state the Hearing Examiner’s findings and recommendations. The report shall be a public record and shall be served upon the owner of the dog in accordance with the provision of (g) above.

(l) Hearings. (Amended by Ord. No. 165,507, Eff. 3/25/90.)

1. If, at the initial hearing the Hearing Examiner determines that the allegations are true, the Hearing Examiner shall recommend that the license be reissued upon reasonable terms, conditions or restrictions for the training, handling or maintenance of the dog to abate the condition which gave rise to the hearing.

Terms, conditions, or restrictions may include but are not limited to:

A. selection of locations within the owner’s property or premises where a dog shall not be kept;

B. requirements as to size, construction or design of an enclosure where a dog may be kept;

C. specialized training from a trainer or training program approved by the Department to correct any of the dog’s behavioral problems;

D. removal of one or more dogs from the premises to another location or prohibiting the addition of any new dog at the premises;

E. types and method of restraint, or muzzling, or both;

F. photo identification or permanent marking, or both, for purposes of identification.

2. A hearing or subsequent hearing shall be held wherein the license may be revoked if the owner has either failed to comply with the terms, conditions or restrictions imposed pursuant to clause (1), above, or Subdivision (r) or if the violation continues to exist.

If the license is again reissued, in addition to any other term, condition or restriction recommended by the Hearing Examiner, the licensee shall agree to pay a civil penalty in the amount of two hundred fifty dollars ($250) as a condition of the re-issuance of the license. The General Manager shall establish such rules and regulations as are reasonably necessary to prevent the imposition of the civil penalty from becoming an economic hardship on the licensee. Such rules and regulations shall include, but are not limited to, criteria to reduce the amount of penalty to be imposed and provisions for time payments.

3. If the owner fails to appear at a hearing or absents himself from a hearing, the Hearing Examiner may continue the matter or proceed with the hearing as the Hearing Examiner deems appropriate. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Hearing Examiner may recommended the that license of any owner who fails to attend a hearing or absents himself from a hearing be revoked if the evidence establishes that the allegations are true.

(m) General Manager – Review.

1. The General Manager shall review the findings and recommendations of the Hearing Examiner and may adopt or reject the Hearing Examiner’s findings, or may adopt or modify the recommendations of the Hearing Examiner, or may return the matter to the Hearing Examiner for further evidence or for additional findings and recommendations. The General Manager’s decision shall be finalized in writing within 15 days of the receipt of the Hearing Examiner’s findings and recommendations, and shall be served upon the owner in accordance with the provisions of (g) above.

2. The decision of the General Manager is final and effective when served upon the owner, unless there is an appeal filed within 15 days of said service.

(n) Revoked License – Removal of Animal from City. If a dog license is revoked, the owner or custodian shall surrender the dog to the Department or permanently remove the dog or cause the dog to be permanently removed from the City within five (5) calendar days after either the time for appeal, as provided herein, has passed without an appeal being filed, or the decision of the Board revoking a dog license has been served upon the General Manager and appellant. The dog shall be impounded by the Department if found within the City after the said five–day period. Failure to remove a dog from the City or surrender it to the Department, as provided herein, is a misdemeanor. (Amended by Ord. No. 164,477, Eff. 3/27/89.)

(o) Subsequent Disposition of Dog. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department shall hold for sale any dog surrendered or impounded pursuant to this section for a period of forty-five (45) days. The dog must be transferred to and sold from a district animal shelter different from the district animal shelter where the complaint arose. The General Manager or his duly authorized representative may impose appropriate terms, conditions or restrictions as a condition to the issuance of a new license to a new owner.

(p) Notice to the Department of the Removal of a Dog from the City. An owner of any dog whose license has been revoked pursuant to this section shall inform the Department in writing upon the dog’s removal from the City the name, address, and telephone number of the new owner, the location where the dog will be kept and the name and description of the dog. The owner shall, in addition, notify the new owner in writing of the details of any and all complaints concerning the dog, and any terms, conditions or restrictions previously imposed by the Department. The owner shall provide the Department with a copy of the notification to the new owner as well as an acknowledgment by the new owner the receipt thereof.

(q) Appeal Procedures. (Amended by Ord. No. 164,477, Eff. 3/27/89.)

1. The decision of the General Manager to revoke a dog license, to declare a dog to be a dangerous animal, to issue or re-issue a dog license upon terms, conditions or restrictions, or to refuse to issue a new license pursuant to Subdivision (r) may be appealed to the Board of Animal Services Commissioners by the owner of the dog as provided herein. (Amended by Ord. No. 165,507, Eff. 3/25/90.)

2. The Board may establish such rules and procedures consistent with this section as it deems necessary for the conduct of the hearing of appeals, including, but not limited to, the filing and presentation of written and oral statements.

3. The appeal shall be in writing and shall be on an appeal form provided by the Department. The appellant shall set forth specifically on the form wherein the appellant believes that the decision of the General Manager is not supported by the evidence or where any hearing before a Hearing Examiner was not conducted in accordance with the provisions of this section for the conduct of hearings. Within 10 days from the date of a timely filed appeal, the General Manager shall transmit to the Board copies of the Hearing Examiner’s file and report, the General Manager’s written decision and the appeal form for consideration.

The grounds or reasons stated on the appeal form by the appellant will be the only grounds or reasons considered by the Board. No appeal shall be considered if filed or postmarked later than 15 days after the decision of the General Manager is served upon the owner or if the owner has failed to appear at the hearing before the Hearing Examiner.

4. The Board shall fix the time, date and place of the hearing and shall serve a notice of the hearing upon all parties at least five days prior to the hearing. The Board shall conduct its hearing at the time, date and place specified in the notice unless, upon the written request of the appellant and upon good cause being shown, it agrees to continue the hearing once to a date certain no later than 14 days after the original date set for the hearing.

5. The Board, after notice and hearing, may affirm, modify, or reverse the decision of the General Manager and deny or grant appeal accordingly.

6. The Board shall not consider any new evidence and shall base its decision only upon

(i) the record before the Hearing Examiner,

(ii) the report of the Hearing Examiner,

(iii) the written decision of the General Manager,

(iv) the appeal form, and

(v) a consideration of statements, if any, presented to the Board orally or in writing at the hearing.

7. The Board shall make its decision within 75 days from the date the General Manager transmits to the Board the materials described in Subdivision 3 above provided, however, this time limit may be extended once if, prior to the expiration of the 75 days, the appellant, the General Manager and the Board mutually agree to extend this time limit for a period not to exceed 15 days. If the Board fails to act on any appeal within the specified time limits, the decision of the General Manager shall be deemed affirmed without further action by the Board.

8. The Board may reverse or modify the decision of the General Manager and grant the appeal only when the written decision of the General Manager is not supported by the evidence or whenever a hearing before a Hearing Examiner was not conducted in accordance with the provisions of this section for the conduct of hearings.

9. The decision of the Board to reverse or to modify the decision of the General Manager shall be in writing. The decision shall enumerate the ground or grounds which form the basis for the Board’s action and specify where in the record the evidence supports each ground so enumerated.

10. A decision of the Board is final. It becomes effective when served upon the General Manager and appellant by the Board.

(r) Reinstatement of License Privileges. (Added by Ord. No. 165,507, Eff. 3/25/90.) Upon the written request of the person whose privilege to own, possess, control or be in charge of any dogs has been terminated pursuant to Sections 53.34.4(h) or 53.63(c), the General Manager may reinstate the privilege as to other dogs and authorize the Department to issue a new license. In addition to any other requirement of law, the General Manager may impose such terms, conditions or restrictions as he believes are necessary to protect the public health, safety and welfare, and which may be in addition to any term, condition or restriction authorized by Clause (1) of Subdivision (l), above, or Section 53.34.4(e)(2).

The General Manager’s decision shall be in writing and state the reasons for issuing or refusing to issue the license or imposing terms, conditions or restrictions and shall be served upon the owner in accordance with the provisions of Subdivision (g). The owner may appeal to the Board the refusal to issue a license or the imposition of terms, conditions or restrictions as provided by this section.

No license shall be issued until the decision is final and then only upon the written acceptance by the owner of any terms, conditions or restrictions finally imposed. If the owner fails to comply with the terms, conditions or restrictions imposed herein, any license revocation hearing shall be held pursuant to Clause (2) of Subdivision (l) this section.

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SEC. 53.21. DOG TAGS – WEARING OF AND REGISTRY.

(a) Such tag shall be securely affixed to a collar, harness, or other device and shall at all times be worn by such dog, except while such dog remains indoors or in an enclosed yard or pen

(b) The Department shall procure the number of tags needed each year and shall keep a record of the name and address of the person to whom each such license is issued, the number of such tag, the date of issuance thereof and a description of the dog for which issued. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/1/67.)

(c) The Department may upon proof of loss and receipt of $3.00 issue a replacement dog license number and tag to any person making such proof of loss. (Amended by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.)

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SEC. 53.22. DOG TAG – MUST BE OFFICIAL.

(a) No person shall attach to or keep upon any dog any tag provided for in this article except a tag issued for which dog under the provisions of this article.

(b) Dog Tags – Imitation of. No person shall attach to or keep upon any dog or make or have in his possession any counterfeit or imitation of any tag provided for in this article.

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SEC. 53.23. DOG TAGS – REMOVAL OF.

No unauthorized person shall remove any current valid license from any dog. (Amended by Ord. No. 129,259, Eff. 2/19/65.)

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SEC. 53.24. RECEIPT – CERTIFICATE – FAILURE TO EXHIBIT.

No person keeping or harboring a dog for which a license is required shall fail to exhibit a license receipt, certificate of vaccination, or exemption certificate required by this article upon demand by any employee of the Department. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

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SEC. 53.26. LICENSE TAXES – RIGHT TO SUE FOR RECOVERY.

(Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

The amount of any license tax or penalty imposed by this article shall be deemed a debt to the City of Los Angeles. Any person owning, having or keeping any dog in this City without having obtained a license so to do shall be liable to an action in the name of this City in any court of competent jurisdiction for the amount of any license tax imposed by and required by this article to be paid for the privilege of keeping and having such dog. It shall be the duty of the General Manager of the Department to cause a complaint to be filed against any person violating any of the provisions of this article and to cause an action to be brought against any person failing to pay any license tax required by the provisions of this article for the recovery of such tax. Such action shall be cumulative and shall not be deemed as a bar to or a waiver of the right of this City to prosecute any person for a violation of this article.

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SEC. 53.27. TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP. NOTICE REQUIRED.

Each owner or operator of any dog hospital or pet shop, and any person engaged in the business of breeding dogs or as a veterinarian who sells, gives away or in any manner causes the ownership or permanent possession of any dog, whether over four (4) months of age or not, to be transferred to any person, shall notify in writing the Department of that fact within five (5) days after the date of such sale or transfer. Such notice shall state the kind of dog, the name of such dog, if any, and the person to whom such dog has been sold or transferred.

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SEC. 53.28. HARBORING OF UNLICENSED DOGS.

No person shall have, harbor or keep any unlicensed dog that is over the age of four months.

A Municipal Corporation may require the licensing of dogs.

People v. Harrington (1940) CR A 1701.

People v. Harrington (1941) CR A 1828.

In re Ackerman (1907) 6 Cal. App. 7.

Simpson v. City of Los Angeles (1953) 40 Cal. 7 271.

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SEC. 53.29. FEMALE DOGS AND CATS, STRAYING DURING SEASON.

(Amended by Ord. No. 130,868, Eff. 10/25/65.)

Every person owning or having charge, care, custody or control of any female dog or cat shall strictly confine such animal during its copulating season, i.e., while it is in heat or in season, in a building or other adequate enclosure designed to keep such dogs or cats on the premises of said person.

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SEC. 53.30. KEEPING OF DISEASED OR CRIPPLED ANIMALS.

No person shall have, keep, or harbor any animal which is known or believed by him to be infected with any dangerous or communicable disease, or which is in an incurable crippled condition, or which is afflicted with any painful disease which is believed by such person to be incurable, except as in this article otherwise provided.

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SEC. 53.31. PUBLIC SPAY AND NEUTER CLINIC.

(a) Authority for Clinic and Fees. The General Manager is hereby authorized and empowered to establish a clinic at which members of the public may have dogs and cats spayed or neutered in a humane manner upon payment of a $28.00 fee. (Amended by Ord. No. 168,050, Eff. 8/6/92.)

Notwithstanding the foregoing, no fee shall be charged for spaying or neutering a dog whose owner has applied for and qualifies to be issued a free license under Subsection (f) of Section 53.15 of this Code for such dog.

Nor shall a fee be charged for spaying or neutering a cat owned and maintained by a person 62 years of age or older, provided that the combined adjusted gross income (as used for purposes of the California Personal Income Tax Law) of all members of the household in which such person resided during the calendar year prior to the date on which the cat is to be spayed or neutered was less than Eleven Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($11,500.00) for said calendar year. No more than three cats per person or household may be spayed or neutered free of charge, except that upon satisfactory proof of loss or death of a cat that was spayed or neutered free of charge under the provisions of this subsection, a replacement cat may be spayed or neutered free of charge for the same person. (Amended by Ord. No. 161,044, Eff. 5/4/86.)

For each fiscal year commencing with the 1991-92 fiscal year the General Manager is directed to determine, and utilize as the prior calendar year’s adjusted gross income limitation, the figure in effect on the preceding first day of April as the “very low income” limitation for a family of two persons in the City of Los Angeles, as determined by the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, and published by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Added by Ord. 167,134, Eff. 9/1/91.)

(b) Consent Form and Waiver. (Added by Ord. No. 141,123, Eff. 11/19/70.) Persons submitting dogs or cats for the above service shall sign a consent form certifying thereon under penalty of perjury that they are the owner of said animals or are otherwise authorized to present the animal for the above operation and such persons may be required to furnish proof of such ownership or authority.

Such consent shall contain a waiver of any and all liability of the City, the Department of Animal Services and City employees for any injury or death to an animal arising out of the aforementioned operation or any services provided incidental thereto.

(c) Board and Care Charge. (Added by Ord. No. 141,123, Eff. , 11/19/70.) The department shall establish a return date by which persons submitting animals for the above operation shall pick up said animals or be subject to a reasonable board and care fee to commence the day after such return date.

Failure to pick up an animal within 15 days of said return date shall be deemed abandonment of such animal and the General Manager may dispose of it by sale or destruction.

(d) Suspension of fees. The fees and charges imposed by this section are hereby suspended for the period September 26, 1987 through and including January 22, 1988. (Added by Ord. No. 162,744, Eff. 9/24/87.)

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SEC. 53.32. ANIMALS – DISPOSAL OF.

It shall be the duty of the General Manager of the Department and he is hereby authorized and empowered to issue and sign a death warrant and order the destruction by any employee of the Department, of any animal lawfully taken into custody of the Department which in the opinion of the General Manager is, by reason of old age, unfit for further use, or which is infected with any dangerous or communicable disease, or which is in an incurably crippled condition, or which is adjudged by a written report of a licensed veterinarian to be afflicted with any painful or incurable disease. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

The General Manager shall issue and sign a death warrant for and authorize the destruction by a police officer or other person of any animal inflicted with any dangerous or communicable disease or which is in an incurable crippled condition.

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SEC. 53.33. VICIOUS ANIMALS – PRIVATE PREMISES.

(Amended by Ord. No. 148,943, Eff. 11/25/76.)

(a) No person, owning or having custody or control of any dog, other than a sentry dog, or any other animal known by such person to be vicious or dangerous, shall permit it to run at large, or permit it to run loose on or within the premises of such person in such a manner as to endanger the life or limb of any person lawfully entering such premises. For the purposes of this section “sentry dog” shall mean a dog trained to work without supervision in a fenced facility to deter or to detain persons found within the facility.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Code, no owner or person charged with custody or control of a sentry dog shall assign or work such dog on a premises, unless said premises is posted to warn of sentry dog activity. Said warning shall consist of signs placed at 50-foot intervals around the perimeter of the area guarded by the sentry dog and at all entrances and exits to said area. Such signs shall measure 10″ x 14″ and shall contain black lettering on a white background stating “WARNING – SENTRY DOG ON DUTY,” and shall also depict the head of a dog with bared fangs. In addition the sign shall set forth the name, address and telephone number of the sentry dog company furnishing the dog for hire. The telephone number shall be a telephone which is manned by a person 24 hours a day every day of the year.

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SEC. 53.34. ANIMALS AT LARGE.

(Title amended by Ord. No. 162,537, Eff. 8/8/87.) (Section amended by Ord. No. 162,748, Eff. 9/24/87.)

A person who owns or is in charge of or controls or who possesses a dog or other animal who permits, allows or causes the dog or other animal to run, stray, be uncontrolled or in any manner be in, upon, or at large upon a public street, sidewalk, park or other public property or in or upon the premises or private property of another person is guilty of a misdemeanor if said dog or other animal bites, attacks or causes injury to any human being or other animal.

Any person convicted under this section or Section 53.33 shall not own, possess, control or be in charge of any animal of the species which caused the bite, attack or injury for a period of three (3) years from the date of conviction. The Department shall not issue or renew any license or permit for said species of animal, except that upon the written request of the person so convicted, the General Manager may authorize the issuance of a dog license pursuant to the provisions of Section 53.15(b).

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SEC. 53.34.1. MENACING DOGS.

(Added by Ord. No. 168,864, Eff. 7/7/93.)

No person, owning or having custody or control of any dog, whether or not restrained by a substantial chain or leash, shall permit the dog to unlawfully assault, threaten or menace any human being or other animal upon any public street, sidewalk, park or other public property, or in or upon the premises or private property of another.

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SEC. 53.34.2. IMPOUNDMENT – BITING OR ATTACKING ANIMAL.

(Added by Ord. No. 162,537, Eff. 8/8/87.)

(a) The Department shall have the power to summarily and immediately impound a dog or other animal where there is evidence it has attacked, bitten or injured any human being or other animal pending any court or dog license or animal permit revocation proceeding arising from the attack, bite or injury; or to undertake a hearing pursuant to Section 53.34.4. A duly authorized Department employee may enter and inspect private property to enforce the provisions of this section as provided by Section 53.03 of this article.

Failure to surrender to the Department upon demand a dog or other animal which is subject to being impounded pursuant to this section is a misdemeanor.

A dog or other animal, impounded pursuant to the authority of this section, shall be returned to the owner or custodian as provided by Section 53.34.4 or when it is no longer required as evidence, or if a notice of a hearing pursuant to Section 53.34.4 to declare the dog or other animal a dangerous animal has not been served on the owner or custodian within seven days after the impoundment.

(b) In lieu of impound, the General Manager may permit the dog or other animal to be confined at the owner’s or custodian’s expense in a Department approved dog kennel or veterinary facility within the City or at the owner’s or custodian’s residence provided that the owner or custodian:

1. Shall not remove the dog or other animal from the kennel, veterinary facility or residence without the prior written approval of the General Manager or his authorized representative; and

2. Shall make the dog or other animal available for observation and inspection by Department personnel or members of law enforcement or their authorized representatives.

(c) The General Manager or his designated representative may have a dog or other animal, impounded or confined as provided in (a) or (b) above, permanently identified by means of photo identification prior to release from impound or confinement.

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SEC. 53.34.4. DANGEROUS ANIMAL – PROCEDURES.

(Added by Ord. No. 162,537, Eff. 8/8/87.)

(a) Hearing. The Department shall conduct a hearing to determine whether or not a dog or other animal confined or impounded pursuant to Section 53.34.2 is a dangerous animal. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures provided by Section 53.18.5.

(b) Dangerous Animal – Declared. The Department, after a hearing, may declare any dog or other animal to be a dangerous animal whenever it has bitten, attacked or caused injury to any human being or other animal.

(c) Determination of Dangerous Animal – Evidence. In making a determination that a dog or other animal is or is not dangerous, evidence of the following shall be considered:

1. Any previous history of the dog or other animal attacking, biting or causing injury to a human being or other animal;

2. The nature and extent of injuries inflicted and the number of victims involved;

3. The place where the bite, attack or injury occurred;

4. The presence or absence of any provocation for the bite, attack or injury;

5. The extent to which property has been damaged or destroyed;

6. Whether the dog or other animal exhibits any characteristics of being trained for fighting or attack or other evidence to show such training or fighting;

7. Whether the dog or other animal exhibits characteristics of aggressive or unpredictable temperament or behavior in the presence of human beings or dogs or other animals;

8. Whether the dog or other animal can be effectively trained or retrained to change its temperament or behavior;

9. The manner in which the dog or other animal had been maintained by is owner or custodian;

10. Any other relevant evidence concerning the maintenance of the dog or other animal;

11. Any other relevant evidence regarding the ability of the owner or custodian, or the Department, to protect the public safety in the future if the dog or other animal is permitted to remain in the City.

(d) Dangerous Animal – Disposition.

1. It shall be unlawful for any person to own, possess, harbor or keep any dog or other animal declared by the Department, after a hearing, to be dangerous.

2. Any dog or other animal declared by the Department to be dangerous, if not already impounded by the Department, shall be immediately surrendered to the Department, and it is the duty of the Department to take up and impound any such dog or other animal.

3. (Amended by Ord. No. 164,477, Eff. 3/27/89.) Any dog, or other animal, declared to be a dangerous animal shall be humanely destroyed. The General Manager shall sign an order authorizing the destruction of the dog or other animal within two (2) days after the time for appeal as provided in Section 53.18.5(q)3 has passed without an appeal being filed.

In the event the Board has received and heard an appeal and made a determination that the dog or other animal is a dangerous animal, copies of that Board action shall be served upon the General Manager and appellant. Upon expiration of five days after completion of said service, the General Manager shall sign an order authorizing destruction of said dog or other animal.

(e) Dog or Other Animal – Not Dangerous – Procedure. (Amended by Ord. No. 162,748, Eff. 9/24/87.) If it is determined that the dog or other animal is not dangerous, but that the bite, attack or injury was the result of improper or negligent training, handling or maintenance, the dog license or animal permit may:

1. Be revoked if it is determined that the owner or custodian is unable or unwilling to properly train, handle or maintain the dog or other animal and a similar incident is likely to occur in the future without proper training, handling or maintenance, or

2. Be reissued with reasonable terms, conditions or restrictions imposed for the training, handling or maintenance of the dog or other animal to protect the public health, safety and welfare if it is determined that the owner or custodian is able and willing to properly train, handle or maintain the dog or other animal and a similar incident is not likely to occur in the future with proper training, handling or maintenance.

(f) Revoked License – Previously Impounded or Confined.

1. If a dog or other animal has been impounded or confined pursuant to Section 53.34.2 and its license or permit has been revoked pursuant to (e)1 above and the owner or custodian wishes to reclaim and remove it from the City of Los Angeles, the Department shall release it provided that the notice provisions of Section 53.18.5(p) are complied with prior to its release and further provided that the dog or other animal is taken to its new location immediately and directly upon its release from impound or confinement. Failure to remove the dog or other animal immediately and directly from the City upon release from impound or confinement is a misdemeanor.

2. Any dog or other animal which has previously been impounded or otherwise confined and which has not been claimed within five (5) calendar days of service of a notice of revocation of its license or permit shall be deemed abandoned and shall be disposed of by the Department in accordance with this article. Notwithstanding the above, the owner may enter into a written agreement with the Department to take additional time to remove, or to cause the dog or other animal to be removed, to a new location outside the City. Such additional time shall not exceed ten (10) days. For each additional day agreed to, the pound fees required by Section 53.12 shall be paid prior to the release of the dog or other animal.

(g) Animal Identification. Any dog or other animal subject to this section must be permanently identified by the Department by the use of photographs or permanent marking, or both, prior to its release from impound or confinement.

(h) New License Prohibited. (Amended by Ord. No. 165,507, Eff. 3/25/90.) Any person whose dog or other animal has been declared dangerous or whose license or permit has been revoked pursuant to this section shall not have the privilege to own, posses, control or be in charge of any animal of the species whose license or permit has been revoked or whose animal has been declared dangerous for a period of three (3) years from the date the decision becomes final and the Department shall not issue, re-issue or renew any license or permit except that a dog license may be issued as provided by Section 53.18.5(r).

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SEC. 53.35. ANIMALS – TRANSPORTATION OF.

No person shall transport or carry on the running board of any motor vehicle or outside of the portion of any motor vehicle designed for passengers or of the tonneau or body thereof any animal unless such animal is protected by a framework or other device which will prevent such animal from falling off or being thrown from such motor vehicle during the operation thereof.

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SEC. 53.36. RESISTING OFFICERS OR EMPLOYEES.

No person shall hinder, resist or oppose the General Manager or employees or representatives of the Department or any police officer in the performance of their duties under this article, or conceal or secrete any unlicensed dog from any such officer or person. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

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SEC. 53.37. DOGS – EXEMPTIONS.

The provisions of Sections 53.15 and 53.15.3 shall not apply to any dog owned by, or in charge or care of, any person who is a non-resident of this City and either traveling through this City or temporarily residing in this City for a period not to exceed thirty days or to any dog brought temporarily to this City for the exclusive purpose of entering the animal in a bench show or dog exhibition and kept exclusively at such bench show or dog exhibition while in this City. (Amended by Ord. No. 162,538, Eff. 8/27/87.)

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SEC. 53.41. ANIMALS – FOOD POISONING.

No person shall place, leave or expose, in any place accessible to birds, fowls, domestic animals, dogs, cats or other such animals with the intent to kill or harm such birds, fowls, or animals, any poisonous substance or ingredient, or any edible or any other substance or ingredient which has in any manner been treated or prepared with any poisonous substance or ingredient.

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SEC. 53.44. VETERINARIES – NOTICES OF DEATH OF ANIMALS.

Every person owning or operating any veterinary hospital or other establishment for the treatment of animals, shall notify the owner of any animal left in such hospital or institution for treatment, of the death of such animal, within twenty-four (24) hours after the death, provided the address of the owner has been filed in the office of the veterinary hospital or other institution.

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SEC. 53.45. VETERINARIES – RETENTION OF DEAD ANIMALS.

Every person owning or operating any veterinary hospital or other establishment for the treatment of animals, shall hold any animals which die therein for a period of twelve (12) hours after notification of the death of such animal has been sent to the owner thereof.

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SEC. 53.46. WILD BIRDS – IMPOUNDING – CRATING.

(a) No person shall impound any wild or domestic fowl or bird unless provision is made by such person, for the proper feeding and the furnishing of water to such fowl or bird at intervals not longer than twelve hours apart.

(b) No person shall impound any wild or domestic fowl or bird in a crate, box or other enclosure, which crate, box or other enclosure, is less than twice as large in floor space or standing room as the total size of all fowls or birds which may be impounded therein, and which is not sufficiently high to permit each fowl or bird impounded therein to stand in a natural erect position.

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SEC. 53.49. DOGS – DOG DEFECATION TO BE REMOVED BY OWNERS.

(Title and Section Amended by Ord. No. 151,707, Eff. 12/29/79.)

It shall be unlawful for the owner or person having custody of any dog to fail to immediately remove and dispose of in a sanitary manner, by replacing in a closed or sealed container and depositing in a trash receptacle, any feces deposited by such dog upon public or private property, without the consent of the public or private owner or person in lawful possession of the property, other than property owned or controlled by the owner or person having custody of such dog. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to a blind person being accompanied by a guide dog. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Code, every violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be an infraction, punishable by a fine of $20.00.

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SEC. 53.50. DOG KENNELS, ETC.

(a) Permit Required. (Amended by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.) No person, without first obtaining a permit therefor in writing from the Department, shall keep, conduct or operate within the City of Los Angeles any dog kennel, cat kennel, pet shop, zoo, animal rental establishment, animal grooming parlor, riding academy, livery stable, boarding stable, pony ring or pony ride, horse market, mule market, circus, rodeo, pet show, cat show, animal acts or exhibitions, alligator farm, ostrich farm, wild animals, miscellaneous animal or reptile establishment, or carrier and homing pigeons which are to be liberated for exercise or racing.

(b) Application – Contents of. Each application for permit hereunder shall be in writing upon a form to be furnished by the Department, and shall contain such information as the General Manager, by rule or regulation shall require. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

All permits issued by the Department as required by this article shall expire one year from the date of issuance, unless sooner revoked or suspended, or unless the holder of such permit changes the location of his place of business, or sells, assigns, transfers or otherwise disposes of such business or his interest therein for a period of 30 days. (Amended by Ord. No. 150,576, Eff. 3/26/78, Oper. 7/1/78.)

Upon the expiration of any permit and within thirty days thereafter, the permittee shall apply for and secure a renewal of the permit in the manner provided for in this article upon paying the proper fees. Upon failure to make application for renewal of such permit within the time herein provided, the applicant shall pay, in addition to the regular permit fee, a penalty of 15% of any such renewal fee. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

All permits issued hereunder shall be kept posted in a conspicuous place. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

(c) Investigation. Upon the filing of each application hereunder, either for an original permit or a renewal thereof, the Department shall make such investigation as it deems proper. It shall then issue a permit to the applicant if it finds that: (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

1. The keeping of animals, or the conduct or operation of the business for which the permit is requested, and at the place set forth in the application, will not violate any law or ordinance of this City, or any law of the State of California; and

2. The keeping of animals, or the conduct or operation of the business for which the permit is requested will not constitute a menace to the health, peace or safety of the community; and

3. The premises and establishment where animals are to be kept is maintained in a clean and sanitary condition, and that animals will not be subject to needless suffering, unnecessary cruelty or abuse; and

4. The applicant has not had a permit revoked within one year prior to the application.

(d) Revocation or Suspension – Grounds – Procedure. Any permit issued hereunder may be revoked or suspended under the procedure outlined in Sec. 22.02 of this Code, if, after due investigation, the Department finds: (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

1. That the permittee, his agent, or employee, has been convicted of any offense involving the violation of Section 597 of the Penal Code of the State of California, or any provision of this article; or

2. That the permittee, his agent, or employee, has, at the place for which the permit was issued, failed to provide any animal, fowl or reptile in his possession, care or control, with proper and sufficient food, drink, shelter, or protection, or subjected any such animal, fowl or reptile to needless suffering, unnecessary cruelty, or abuse; or

3. That the permittee, his agent, or employee, has failed to maintain the premises in a clean and sanitary condition; or

4. That the permittee, his agent, or employee, has violated any rule or regulation of the Department. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

(e) Rules and Regulations. The General Manager is hereby authorized and empowered to adopt such rules and regulations as he deems reasonably necessary to carry out the purpose of this article, and to insure the maintenance of approved and humane conditions at any place for which a permit is granted hereunder. A copy of such rules and regulations shall be furnished to each applicant for a permit upon the filing of his application. (Amended by Ord. No. 133,983, Eff. 4/10/67.)

(f) Permit Fees. The Department, before receiving any application for granting of any permit required by this section, shall require the payment of an annual permit in amounts as follows: (Amended by Ord. No. 168,590, Eff. 3/21/93.)

1. Dog Kennel $130.00

3. Pet Shop $130.00

6. Pet Show, Dog Show, Animal Acts or Exhibitions $150.00

13. Animal Grooming Parlor $130.00

(Added by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.)

The fees imposed herein for a pet show or a dog show shall be waived in the event that such show is held in a public park.

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SEC. 53.51. VACCINATION OF DOGS REQUIRED.

Every person who owns or harbors any dog over the age of four months in the city shall have such dog vaccinated against rabies by a duly licensed veterinarian of his choice, or at a Vaccination Clinic sponsored by the Southern California Veterinary Medical Association, except as provided in Section 53.52. (Amended by Ord. No. 127,508, Eff. 6/29/64.)

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SEC. 53.52. EXEMPTIONS.

(Amended by Ord. No. 106,995, Eff. 3/24/56.)

Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary herein, no dog need be vaccinated for rabies where:

(1) A licensed veterinarian has examined the dog and certified that at such time vaccination would endanger the dog’s health because of its age, infirmity, debility, or other physiological consideration; and

(2) Such certificate is presented to the Health Officer within five days of such examination; and

(3) The Health Officer concurs in the opinion of the veterinarian contained in such certificate and endorses on such certificate his approval thereof, such certificate must bear the date of issuance and must be renewed each year; or

(4) The dog is kept in the house, or in a fenced yard adequate to confine the animal at all times and the owner or person in charge of control of the dog furnishes the Department with his signed statement to that effect, or

(5) The dog, meeting the above requirements, is kept on a leash in accordance with the existing city leash law.

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SEC. 53.53. DUTY OF VETERINARIANS PERFORMING VACCINATIONS.

(Amended by Ord. No. 150,580, Eff. 3/26/78.)

Each duly licensed veterinarian, after vaccinating any dog, shall sign a certificate in triplicate containing the following information:

1. The name and address of the owner or harborer of the vaccinated dog;

2. The kind of vaccine used and the date of the vaccination;

3. The year and serial number of the dog tag;

4. The breed, age, color and sex of the vaccinated dog; and

5. Such other information as the General Manager may require.

He shall immediately present one copy to the owner of the vaccinated dog. The second copy shall be forwarded to the Department of Animal Services within five (5) calendar days after the end of the month in which the vaccination was administered. The remaining copy of the certificate shall be retained by the veterinarian.

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SEC. 53.54. CERTIFICATE RETAINED BY OWNER.

The copy of the vaccination certificate shall be retained by the owner or harborer of the vaccinated dog for inspection by the authorized representatives of the Department. (Amended by Ord. No. 129,259, Eff. 2/19/65.)

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SEC. 53.55. DOGS ON BEACHES PROHIBITED – EXCEPTION.

(Added by Ord. No. 123,426. Eff. 1/24/63.)

(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Code, no person shall take any dog upon any public beach in the City of Los Angeles, nor shall any person owning or having charge, care or control of any dog cause, permit or allow such dog to be upon any such beach.

(b) The provisions of this section shall not apply to dogs which have been especially trained for and are used as

(1) guide dogs for the blind,

(2) signal dogs for the hearing impaired and

(3) service dogs for persons with disabilities other than visual or hearing, while such dogs are being used for such purposes. (Amended by Ord. No. 170,442, Eff. 5/4/95.)

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Code, violation of this section is an infraction. (Added by Ord. No. 153,590, Eff. 5/11/80.)

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SEC. 53.56. IMPORTED DOGS.

Every person bringing any dog into the City shall comply with the laws, rules and regulations of the State of California and the City of Los Angeles relating to dogs. Any dog brought into the City which has not been vaccinated within thirty (30) months with an approved vaccine prior to importation shall be vaccinated in accordance with the provisions of this article within thirty (30) days after its arrival in the City. If the imported dog remains in the City for more than thirty (30) days, the dog shall be licensed in accordance with the provisions of this article. A certificate of vaccination issued by a duly licensed veterinarian from other jurisdiction for the specific dog, establishing vaccination with a vaccine approved by and in a manner prescribed by the State Department of Health, may be accepted by the Department of Animal Services as evidence of vaccination. (Amended by Ord. No. 150,337, Eff. 1/1/78.)

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SEC. 53.57. UNLAWFUL POSSESSION – CERTIFICATES.

(Amended by Ord. No. 129,259, Eff. 2/19/65.)

Only those persons who own or harbor a dog duly vaccinated in accordance with the provisions of this article, or meet exemption qualifications shall possess the completed vaccination certificates.

It shall be unlawful for any person except a licensed veterinarian, or a licensed vendor of the vaccine to make use of or have in his possession any uncompleted vaccination certificate. It shall be unlawful for any person to make use of or have in his possession a stolen or counterfeit vaccination certificate.

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SEC. 53.62. ANIMALS; BURIAL OF.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no person in whose possession any animal or fowl dies shall fail or neglect to notify forthwith the Board of Public Works, at the refuse station maintained by said Board, of the presence of a dead animal or fowl, and the address where the carcass thereof may be found. (Amended by Ord. No. 143,146, Eff. 4/27/72.)

(b) No person shall bury any animal or fowl in the City except in an established cemetery. The death of any such animal or fowl which is to be buried in any such cemetery need not be reported to the Board of Public Works as in this section provided. (Amended by Ord. No. 127,508, Eff. 6/29/64.)

(c) The provisions of Subsections (a) and (b) of this section do not apply when the animal or animals that died were determined before or after their deaths to have had Exotic Newcastle Disease by one or more persons then engaged in a program instituted by the Animal and Plant Health Service of the United States Department of Agriculture to eradicate Exotic Newcastle Disease. (Amended by Ord. No. 143,378, Eff. 5/15/72.)

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SEC. 53.63. BARKING DOG NOISE.

(Amended by Ord. No. 162,538, 8/27/87.)

It shall be unlawful for any person to permit any dog or dogs under his or her charge, care, custody or control to emit any excessive noise after the Department has issued a written notice advising the owner or custodian of the alleged noise and the procedures as set forth below have been followed. For purposes of this section, the term “excessive noise” shall mean noise which is unreasonably annoying, disturbing, offensive, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property of one or more persons occupying property in the community or neighborhood. However, the provisions of this section shall not apply to any commercial animal establishment permitted by zoning law where located. The Department is responsible for enforcement of the provisions of this section. Enforcement is provided for as follows:

(a) First Complaint.

1. Upon receiving a written complaint involving a whining, barking, howling, or similar dog noise, the Department shall issue a written notice to the owner or person having charge, care, or custody (hereinafter in this section referred to as the owner) of the dog or dogs advising that person of the noise complaint and requesting immediate abatement of any excessive noise.

2. Complaints to the Department must be submitted in writing and shall include the name, address and telephone number of the complainant or complainants, as well as the address of the owner of the dog or dogs and a description of the noise.

(b) Second Complaint.

1. If, after 15 days from the issuance of the written notice pursuant to (a)(1) above, a second complaint is received, the Department shall, by written notice, require the complainant or complainants and the owner of the dog or dogs to appear at a meeting before a Department representative to discuss possible ways and means to resolve the problem. If the problem remains unresolved, the matter shall be set for hearing as provided by Section 53.18.5.

2. If the owner fails to appear before the Department representative, and there is evidence that the dog or dogs have emitted excessive noise, the problem shall be deemed unresolved, and the matter set for hearing as provided by Section 53.18.5.

(c) New License Prohibited. (Amended by Ord. No. 165,507, Eff. 3/25/90.) Any person whose dog license has been revoked pursuant to this section shall not have the privilege to own, possess, control or be in charge of any dog for a period of one (1) year from the date the decision becomes final and the Department shall not issue, reissue or renew any license except as provided by Section 53.18.5(r).

(d) Notice Requirements. Notice required pursuant to this section shall be given in the manner provided by Section 53.18.5(g)

(e) Exemption. (Added by Ord. No. 172,735, Eff. 9/9/99.) This section shall not apply to any person using guard and/or sentry dogs on lots zoned CCS, M1, M2, MR1, and MR2, as long as that person, at the time when the complaint of excessive noise is lodged with the Department, is in full compliance with the requirements of Sections 53.64 and 53.66 of this Code.

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SEC. 53.64. REGULATION OF SENTRY DOG SERVICES.

(Title and Section amended by Ord. No. 157,093, Eff. 11/6/82.)

Purpose of Section – The need for technical skill, training and experience, and other fundamental qualities and qualifications in persons engaged in the business of providing sentry dog services, of training sentry dogs, and of handling sentry dogs having been established and demonstrated, and in order to safeguard the health and safety or the general public, of persons who acquire such dogs and of the dogs themselves, it is the purpose of the City of Los Angeles, in enacting this ordinance, to make appropriate provision for the licensing and regulation of sentry dog businesses, trainers, handlers, and owners.

A. Definitions.

(1) “Sentry Dog” means any dog trained to guard, protect, patrol or defend any premises, area or yard, or any dog trained as a sentry or to protect, defend or guard any person or property or any dog which is schutzhund or any similar classification.

(2) “Trainer” means any person who engages in the practice of training a sentry dog in or for placement in the City of Los Angeles.

(3) “Handler” means any person who has custody of sentry dogs for transportation, placement, drop-off, or pickup to or at a location within the City of Los Angeles as part of a sentry dog service.

(4) “Sentry Dog Service” means engaging in the business of providing sentry dogs in the City of Los Angeles.

(5) “Person” means any individual, partnership, firm, joint stock company, corporation, association, trust, estate, or other legal entity.

(6) “Owner” means any person who has purchased or obtained legal custody of a sentry dog.

(7) “Licensee” means any person licensed pursuant to the provisions of this section.

B. Licensing.

(1) No person shall engage in the business of providing sentry dog service in the City of Los Angeles, or engage in the practice of training sentry dogs or hold himself or herself out as being able to do so, or act as a handler, unless licensed pursuant to this section.

(2) No person shall own or have the care or custody of a sentry dog unless the person has secured a sentry dog license, tag, and identification number from the Department of Animal Services. The fee for each sentry dog license shall be fifty dollars ($50.00) per year (Fee Amended by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.). The payment of the fee for the sentry dog license shall be in lieu of the dog license tax imposed by Section 53.15 of this article.

(3) The General Manager of the Department of Animal Services shall establish such standards as he or she deems necessary and proper to carry out the purposes of this section in determining the fitness of applicants for sentry dog trainer or handler, and for the sentry dogs themselves, and shall promulgate rules and regulations to effectuate the licensing and tagging of each dog as are deemed necessary. Each applicant for sentry dog trainer or handler shall satisfy the General Manager that he or she is qualified by training or experience to train or handle sentry dogs, to provide humane care and treatment of all dogs under his or her jurisdiction, and that he or she has adequate facilities for such training or handling. In formulating such standards, the General Manager shall seek the assistance of a committee of not less than three persons knowledgeable in the field of sentry dog training. Such standards shall include veterinary and health care standards to be observed by trainers and handlers. The General Manager shall appoint the members of the committee for three year terms. The initial appointments to the committee shall consist of one member for a one year term, one member for a two year term, and all other members for a three year term. The members of the committee may be replaced by the General Manager, without cause, prior to the expiration of their terms.

C. Rules and Regulations. Pursuant to the procedures set forth in the Los Angeles Municipal Code the General Manager may make such rules and regulations as are reasonably necessary to:

(1) Establish the procedures and responsibilities of the committee;

(2) Establish and administer an examination of applicants for a license to train or handle sentry dogs. Any person possessing a license to train sentry dogs may also handle sentry dogs without the necessity of a handler’s license;

(3) Issue annual licenses for sentry dog services, trainers, and handlers;

(4) Regulate the annual renewal of licenses including the necessity of reexamination of trainers and handlers.

D. Application For Licenses.

(1) An application for a license to operate, maintain, and conduct a sentry dog service in the City shall be filed together with an application fee of two hundred dollars ($200.00) (Fee Amended by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.) with the Department of Animal Services. An annual fee of one hundren dollars ($100.00) (Fee Amended by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.) shall be required for the renewal of a business license. The application shall state the name, address and type of organization of the sentry dog service, its method of operation, the names, addresses and physical description of its officers, proprietors, and employees, and such other identification and information including, but not limited to, fingerprints and recent photographs of the applicant, its officers, proprietors, and employees as may be deemed necessary by the General Manager of the Department of Animal Services.

(2) The application for a license to conduct a sentry dog service in the City, and each annual renewal request, must be accompanied by a surety bond underwritten by a corporate surety admitted to do business in California, in a form approved by the City Attorney, in the sum of $15,000.00 blanket coverage for each and all employees, officers, and proprietors of the sentry dog service. The bond shall be conditioned upon the faithful and honest conduct of the business of sentry dog service by the licensee and also conditioned upon faithful compliance with all of the ordinances of the City and the laws of the State of California, in force, or which may thereafter be adopted. The licensee and sureties named in the bond, and their successors and assigns, shall be jointly and severally liable to the City and to any person, firm or corporation for damages suffered by reason of the wrongful acts of the licensee, its officers, employees, or proprietors in breach of the condition of the bond. The bond shall not be void upon any one or more recoveries thereunder, but may be sued and recovered upon from time to time by any person, firm or corporation aggrieved or damaged, to the extent thereof. The bond shall be renewed to its original amount on each anniversary. Notice of any proposed cancellation of the bond shall be sent by registered mail to the Insurance and Bonds Section of the Office of the City Attorney and to the Department of Animal Services not less than 30 days in advance of the cancellation date.

(3) A sentry dog service shall furnish evidence of the following insurance with the Department of Animal Services upon request: workers compensation, general liability, and automobile liability.

(4) Each applicant for a sentry dog trainer license shall be a natural person and have at least 2000 hours of actual commercial experience as a trainer and have trained seven (7) dogs; or an equivalent amount of experience, as determined by the committee or General Manager. Each applicant for a sentry dog trainer license shall pay at the time of filing the application the sum of two hundred dollars ($200.00) (Fee Amended by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.) to the Department of Animal Services. An annual fee of one hundred dollars ($100.00) (Fee Amended by Ord. No. 170,171, Eff. 1/20/95.) shall be required for the renewal of a license.

(5) Each applicant for a sentry dog handler license shall be a natural person and shall pay a fee of one hundred dollars ($100.00) at the time of filing the application. An annual fee of fifty dollars ($50.00) shall be required for the renewal of a license.

E. Necessity of License. It shall be unlawful for any person to engage in any business or occupation licensed under this section within the City of Los Angeles unless such person holds a valid and unimpaired license pursuant to the provisions of this section. Violation of any provision of this section is a misdemeanor.

F. Denial of License. The General Manager may refuse to issue a license to a sentry dog service, trainer, or handler on the grounds that the applicant, or an officer or managing employee of the applicant, has committed or sustained one of the following within the last five (5) years:

(1) Conviction of a crime. A conviction within the meaning of this section means a plea or verdict of guilty or a plea of nolo contendre. Any action which the General Manager is permitted to take following the establishment of a conviction may be taken when the time for appeal has elapsed, or the judgment of conviction has been affirmed or on appeal and is final, or when an order granting probation is made suspending the imposition of sentence, irrespective of a subsequent order under the provisions of Section 1203.4 of the Penal Code; or

(2) Any act involving dishonesty, fraud, or deceit with the intent to benefit oneself or another, or injure another; or

(3) Any act involving violence with the intent to benefit oneself or another, or injure another; or

(4) Any act involving cruelty to an animal; or

(5) Any act which if done by a licensee would be grounds for suspension or revocation of the license.

The General Manager may deny a license pursuant to this subsection only if the crime or act is related to the qualifications, functions or duties of a sentry dog service, trainer or handler. The General Manager may also refuse to issue a license under this section if the General Manager determines that the applicant has made any false statements or given any false information in connection with any application required under this section.

G. Grounds for Suspension or Revocation of License. The General Manager may suspend or revoke a license issued under this section if the General Manager determines that the licensee has:

(1) Made any false statement or given any false information in connection with an application for a license, renewal of a license, or reinstatement of a license;

(2) Violated any provision of this Article;

(3) Violated any rule or regulation of the General Manager adopted pursuant to the authority contained in this section;

(4) Committed any act which would be grounds for denial of a license;

(5) A sentry dog service has employed or permitted a person to act as a sentry dog trainer or handler within the City of Los Angeles, as defined in this section, who is not in possession of a valid license issued pursuant to this section.

H. Revocation or Suspension of License. Any license issued under this section may be revoked or suspended under the procedure contained in Section 22.02 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code.

I. Qualification of a Dog. No person shall sell, give away or let for hire any sentry dog unless the following requirements have been met:

(1) The dog has been immunized against distemper and rabies;

(2) A certificate of rabies vaccination is current and valid, issued by a licensed veterinarian.

J. Identification Tag. Every trainer, handler, or owner of a sentry dog shall see to it that such sentry dog wears a clearly visible tag issued by the Department of Animal Services. Such tag shall have stamped or printed thereon the words “Sentry Dog, City of Los Angeles, Department of Animal Services, Fiscal Year…., if found, call 485-5763.” Such tag shall be suspended not less than three quarters of an inch and not more than two inches from the collar worn by the dog. Said collar shall be composed of leather affixed with suitable metal buckle or metal training collar (choke chain) to prevent loss of identification tag. Lost or stolen tags shall be reported to the Department and shall be immediately replaced by the Department at a reasonable replacement cost.

K. Report of Transfer, Loss or Theft Required.

(1) Any person who sells, leases, rents, gives away or otherwise transfers ownership or possession of any sentry dog shall, within ten days of the transfer, file a report with the General Manager on a form prescribed by him or her, containing the name and address of the person to whom such dog was transferred, a description and registration or identification number of the dog, and any other information the General Manager deems appropriate.

(2) Any person whose sentry dog is lost, stolen, or whose dog dies or is seriously injured shall, within three days of the loss, theft, injury or death, file a report with the General Manager, on a form prescribed by him or her containing a description and registration or identification number of the dog and any other information the General Manager deems appropriate.

(3) Any humane society, animal shelter, boarding kennel, pet shop, veterinarian or other person who receives a stray sentry dog, tagged or otherwise identified as sentry dog, other than a bona fide sale or other transfer as described under subdivisions in this section shall immediately notify the General Manager of the receipt, giving all particulars. Any dogs received by any humane society, animal shelter, boarding kennel, pet shop, veterinarian or other person under such circumstances shall be returned to the sentry dog owner or returned to the Department of Animal Services for legal disposition.

L. Inspection of Premises. Premises used for training or sale of sentry dogs and records thereof shall be open for inspection at reasonable hours by any employee of the Department charged by the General Manager with the duty of making inspections for the purpose of inspecting said premises or records to insure compliance with the requirements of this section and the rules and regulations adopted by the General Manager.

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SEC. 53.66. GUARD DOGS.

(Added by Ord. No. 159,914, Eff. 7/5/85.)

Purpose of Section – In order to safeguard the health and safety of the General Public from the danger of guard dogs used by industrial or commercial establishments and to insure the humane treatment of such guard dogs, it is the purpose of the City of Los Angeles in enacting this ordinance to make appropriate provisions for the regulation of guard dogs.

A. Definitions.

(1) “Guard Dog” means any dog kept, used or maintained on any commercial or industrial premises or any dog kept, used or maintained on any industrial or commercial premises to guard, protect, patrol or defend any property or person other than a sentry dog licensed under Section 53.64 of this Code.

(2) “Premises” means any industrial or commercial property, building, structure, business, firm, facility, or enterprise.

B. Required Signs and Information. No person shall keep, use or maintain any guard dog on any premises governed by this section unless the premises are posted to warn of a guard dog on the premises. The warning shall consist of a sign placed at each entrance and exit to the premises and in a position to be legible from the sidewalk or ground level adjacent to the sign. If the premises are not enclosed by a wall or fence, a sign shall be placed at every entrance and exit to each structure on the premises. Each sign shall measure at least 10″ × 14″ and shall contain block lettering on a white background stating “Warning Guard Dog on Duty”. The sign shall have a universal depiction of a silhouette of a dog with its mouth open and its teeth bared. In addition, the sign shall set forth the name, address and phone number of the person or persons to be notified during any hour of the day or night who will proceed immediately to the location to permit entry to the premises by any authorized representative of the Department. This section shall not apply to signs required by Section 53.33(b) governing sentry dogs. (Amended by Ord. No. 175,453, Eff. 10/26/03.)

C. Immunization.

(1) No person shall keep, use or maintain any guard dog on any premises unless each dog has been vaccinated against rabies as required by Section 53.51 of this code and each dog has a current and valid certificate of rabies vaccination issued by a licensed veterinarian, nor shall any person keep, use or maintain any guard dog unless each dog has been immunized against distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis and parvovirus and each dog has a current and valid certificate of such immunization issued by a licensed veterinarian.

(2) The current and valid certificate of rabies immunization and immunization against the common diseases required by Section C.(1) must be issued by a licensed veterinarian and shall be kept on the premises and shown upon the request or demand of any authorized representative of the Department.

D. Veterinary Examination. No person shall keep, use or maintain any guard dog on any premises unless each guard dog has a complete physical examination including blood, fecal, and urine analysis by a licensed veterinarian who shall certify each dog to be free of any infections or disease process. Such examination and certification for the health of each guard dog shall be renewed each calendar year. Every dog currently used as a guard dog shall be examined and certified for health prior to January 1, 1986.

(1) Any guard dog found not to be free of infections or disease process by the veterinarian shall be removed from the premises immediately.

(2) A copy of the veterinarian’s annual certification of health shall be kept on the premises and shown upon the request or demand of any authorized representative of the Department.

(3) A copy of the veterinarian’s annual certification of health shall be filed with the Department within 15 days of its issuance.

(4) If an authorized representative of the Department has reasonable cause to believe that a guard dog is injured, sick, diseased, unwell, or malnourished or constitutes a danger to the public health and safety, said representative may order the guard dog to be removed from the premises until a new certification of health is issued by a licensed veterinarian. The Department representative shall be notified prior to returning the dog to the premises.

E. Tags. Notwithstanding Section 53.21, no person shall keep, use or maintain any guard dog on any premises unless each guard dog has its license tag securely affixed to its collar, harness or other device.

F. Confinement Requirements. It shall be unlawful for any person to tether, fasten, chain, tie, restrain, or cause a guard dog to be fastened, chained, tied, or restrained, to houses, trees, fences, garages or other stationary objects, by means of a rope, chain, strap, or other physical restraint method, for the purpose of confinement on real property. “Confinement,” for purposes of this section, shall mean the dog’s physical restraint to real property for more time than it is necessary for the dog owner to complete a task that requires that the dog be temporarily physically restrained to real property. When confined to real property, the dog must be tethered by a non-choke type collar or a body harness to a tether at least three times the body length of the dog, which allows the dog access to food, water, and shelter as described above, and be free from entanglement. This section shall not affect a person’s ability to use appropriate electronic means of confinement. (Amended by Ord. No. 175,453, Eff. 10/26/03.)

G. Shelter Requirements. No person shall keep, use, or maintain a guard dog on any premises unless the dog is provided full access to an enclosed building, dog house, or similar shelter at all times. The shelter shall:

(1) Have a top, bottom, and at least three sides.

(2) Have a floor raised off the ground, free of cracks, depressions and rough areas where insects, rodents or eggs from internal parasites may lodge. An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and other pests shall be established and maintained.

(3) Be cleaned and maintained in a manner designed to ensure the best possible sanitary conditions. Excreta shall be removed from the shelter as often as necessary, at least daily, to prevent contamination of the dog and to reduce disease hazards and odors. When a hosing or flushing method is used for cleaning, any dog contained in the enclosure shall be protected during the cleaning process. Rugs, blankets, or other bedding material shall be kept clean and dry.

(4) Be of adequate size to allow the dog to stand up and turn about freely, stand easily, sit and lie in a comfortable normal position.

(5) Have a floor constructed so as to protect the dog’s feet and legs from injury.

(6) Allow a dog kept outdoors to remain dry during rain.

(7) Have sufficient clean bedding material or other means of protection from the weather when the ambient temperature falls below that temperature to which the dog is acclimated.

(8) Provide sufficient shade to allow a dog kept outdoors to protect itself from the direct rays of the sun, when sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort. Starting on the first day of June and ending on the last day of October, a shaded, heat-resistant area must be provided during daylight hours.

(9) Contain a suitable means for the prompt elimination of excess liquid.

(10) Be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the dog from injury.

(11) Have all open windows and doors covered by flaps starting in the month of November and continuing until the end of May. The door flap shall allow the dog easy access in and out of the shelter, and at the same time allow the dog to retain body heat.

(12) Be constructed and maintained so that the dog contained therein has convenient access to clean food and water.

(Amended by Ord. No. 175,453, Eff. 10/26/03.)
H. Water Requirements. No person shall keep, use, or maintain any guard dog on any premises unless the dog has access to clean and fresh water at all times. Clean potable water shall be available to the dog unless restricted for veterinary care, and:

(1) If the water is kept in a container, this container shall be of the type designed to prevent tipping and spilling of the water contained therein. If necessary to accomplish this purpose, the container shall be secured to a solid structure or secured in the ground. Watering containers shall be kept clean and shall be sanitized at least once every two weeks; must be kept out of the sun and must be emptied and refilled with fresh water at least once each calendar day; or

(2) If the water is provided by an automatic or demand device, the water supply connected to the device must function 24 hours a day.

(Amended by Ord. No. 175,453, Eff. 10/26/03.)

I. Feeding Requirements. No person shall keep, use, or maintain any guard dog on any premises unless the dog is provided sufficient food daily to maintain proper body weight and good general health. In addition, the following requirements shall apply:

(1) The dog shall be provided with food which is free from contamination, is wholesome, palatable, and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to meet the normal daily requirements for the condition and size of the animal.

(2) Food receptacles shall be accessible to the dog and shall be located so as to minimize food’s contamination by excreta and/or insects. Feeding pans shall be durable and kept clean. The food receptacles shall be sanitized at least once every two weeks. Disposable food receptacles may be used but must be discarded after each feeding. Self feeders may be used for the feeding of dry food, and they shall be sanitized regularly to prevent molding, deterioration or caking of food. Spoiled or contaminated food shall be disposed of in a sanitary manner.

(Amended by Ord. No. 175,453, Eff. 10/26/03.)

J. Licensing. No person shall own, keep, use, or maintain a guard dog unless the person has obtained a guard dog license and tag from the Department. The fee for each guard dog license and tag shall be $150.00 per year for an unaltered guard dog and $50.00 per year for an altered guard dog. Each license issued pursuant to this section shall expire one year from the date of its issuance and on the same day of each year. The license fee shall be paid annually to the Department and shall be due and payable on or before the expiration of the previous license. The payment of the annual guard dog license fee shall be in lieu of the dog license tax imposed by Section 53.15 and the dog license fee imposed by Section 53.15.3 of this article. (Amended by Ord. No. 175,453, Eff. 10/26/03.)

K. Electronic Animal Identification Device. No person shall own, maintain, keep, use, or maintain a guard dog unless the person had an Electronic Animal Identification Device approved by the Department surgically implanted in the dog. (Added by Ord. No. 175,453, Eff. 10/26/03.)

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SEC. 53.67. ANIMAL SACRIFICE.

(Added by Ord. No. 166,307, Eff. 11/12/90.)

(a) No person shall engage in, participate in, assist in, or perform animal sacrifice.

(b) No person shall own, keep, possess or have custody of any animal with the purpose or intention of using such animal for animal sacrifice.

(c) No person shall knowingly sell, offer to sell, give away or transfer any animal to another person who intends to use such animal for animal sacrifice.

(d) Nothing in this ordinance shall be construed to prohibit any person or establishment lawfully operating under the laws of this city and state from lawfully engaging in the slaughter or ritual slaughter of animals where the preparation or killing of such animals is primarily for food purposes.

(e) For the purpose of this section, the following words and phrases are defined as follows:

“Slaughter” means the killing of any animal for food purposes;

“Ritual slaughter” means the preparation and killing of any animal for food purposes in accordance with California Food and Agricultural Code Section 19501;

“Animal sacrifice” means the injuring or killing of any animal in any religious or cult ritual or as an offering to a deity, devil, demon or spirit, wherein the animal has not been injured or killed primarily for food purposes, regardless of whether all or any part of such animal is subsequently consumed.

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SEC. 53.70. CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF DOGS.

(Added by Ord. No. 176,915, Eff. 9/26/05.)

A. Shelter requirements. No person shall keep, use or maintain a dog outdoors on any premises unless the dog is either provided with full access to an enclosed building, or if not provided with such access, is provided with access to a dog house or similar shelter at all times. Said dog house or shelter shall:

(1) Have a weatherproof top, bottom and sides, and an opening on no more than one side that allows a dog to remain dry and provides adequate shade during daylight hours to allow a dog to protect itself in order to prevent overheating or discomfort to the dog.

(2) Have a floor that is level and dry.

(3) Be composed of material that protects the dog from injury, and is free from cracks, depressions and rough areas where insects, parasites and other pests might be established and maintained.

(4) Be of adequate size to allow the dog to stand erect with the dog’s head up, to turn around easily, and to sit and lie down in a comfortable and normal position.

(5) Have sufficient clean bedding material or other means of protection from weather when the weather is colder than what a dog of that breed and condition will comfortably tolerate and that will allow the dog to retain body heat. Bedding material shall be kept clean and dry.

(6) Contain a suitable means for the prompt elimination of excess liquid.

(7) Be structurally sound and maintained in good repair to protect the dog from injury.

(8) Be constructed and maintained so that the dog has convenient access to clean food and water.

(9) Allow the dog easy access in and out.

(10) Be cleaned and maintained in a manner designed to insure sanitary conditions. Excrement shall be removed from the dog house or shelter and from the premises, including yard and dog run, as frequently as necessary to prevent contamination and reduce health hazards and odors. Excrement shall be properly disposed of in trash containers and shall not be washed into the gutter or storm drain. When a hosing or flushing method is used to clean the dog house or shelter, dogs should be removed when reasonably possible.

B. Water requirements. No person shall keep, use or maintain any dog on any premises unless the dog has access to clean, fresh water at all times. Clean potable water shall be available to the dog unless restricted for veterinary care.

(1) If the water is in a container, this container shall be designed, secured, placed and maintained in a manner that prevents tipping and spilling of the water. Water containers shall be kept clean and sanitary, shall be kept out of the sun and shall be emptied and refilled regularly with fresh water; or

(2) If the water is provided by an automatic or demand device, the water supply connected to the device must function twenty four (24) hours per day.

C. Feeding requirements. No person shall keep, use or maintain any dog on any premises unless the dog is provided sufficient food daily to maintain proper body weight and good general health. The food shall be:

(1) Free from contamination, shall be wholesome and palatable and of sufficient quantity, quality and nutritive value to meet the normal daily requirements for the age, size and breed of dog.

(2) Contained in receptacles that is easily accessible to the dog and located in a manner and place that minimize contamination, including but not limited to contamination by excrement or insects. Feeding pans and food receptacles shall be durable and kept clean and shall be maintained in sanitary condition. Self-feeders shall be sanitized regularly to prevent molding, deterioration or caking of food, and to prevent any interruption of the flow of food that would make it difficult for the dog to access the food. Spoiled or contaminated food shall be disposed in a sanitary manner.

(3) Self-feeders and food receptacles shall not be left unattended outdoors for periods of time significantly longer than necessary for feeding purposes in order to prevent attracting vermin or animals in the wild, including predators.

D. Tethering. It shall be unlawful for any person to tether, fasten, chain, tie, restrain or cause a dog to be fastened, chained, tied or restrained to houses, trees, fences, garages or other stationary or highly immobile objects by means of a rope, chain, strap or other physical restraint for the purpose of confinement, except in circumstances where all of the following requirements are met:

(1) The tethering shall not be for more time than is necessary for the dog owner or custodian to complete a temporary task that requires the dog to be physically restrained for a reasonable period.

(2) The dog must be tethered by a non-choke type collar or a body harness to a tether that is at least three (3) times the body length of the dog, measured from the dog’s nose to the back of the hindquarters and which tether is free from entanglement.

(3) The dog must have access to food, water and shelter as described above.

(4) The dog shall be monitored periodically.

This section shall not affect the use of appropriate electronic means of confinement.

E. Caging. No person shall keep, use or maintain a dog in an outdoor pen, run, cage or other enclosure on any premises unless said pen, run, cage or enclosure is of adequate size to allow the dog to move around freely and, in addition,

(1) its length is at least five times the length of the dog and its width is at least three times the length of the dog, and its height allows the dog to stand erect with the dog’s head up, and

(2) contains a dog shelter as described in Section 53.70 A. above, or

(3) provides the animal access to the inside of a building.

The pen, run, cage or other enclosure shall be cleaned and maintained in a manner designed to insure sanitary conditions, and free of any debris which would be injurious to the dog.

F. Exceptions. This prohibition shall not apply to any entities exempt under the provisions of Section 53.15.2 (e)(2), to wit:

(1) Government agencies; non-profit animal rescue organizations exempt from taxation under Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3); or humane societies or societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals if such societies are incorporated under the provisions of California Corporations Code Section 10400 and the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law in Part 2 of the California Corporations Code, beginning at Section 5110;

(2) Permitted dog or cat shows; or

(3) Permitted pet stores which sell or otherwise transfer dogs or cats, whether for compensation or otherwise, within the store.

G. Penalties for noncompliance. A violation of this Section may be punishable as either an infraction or a misdemeanor at the sole discretion of the Los Angeles City Attorney’s Office.

The maximum penalty for a conviction of this Section as an infraction is a fine of $250.00. The maximum penalty for a conviction of this Section as a misdemeanor is a fine of $1,000.00, imprisonment in the County Jail for a period not more than six months, or by both a fine and imprisonment.

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I’d love to hear what your comments are on the Los Angeles Municipal Code Regarding Dogs.  Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

New Puppy

New Puppy Prep and Care

Puppy Love - new puppy

I’m such a cute puppy!

Congratulations on your new puppy! Here are some suggestions on what to do when you bring your new home and for the first few days to help him adjust easily into your home.

Before you bring your new puppy home, there are some supplies that are absolutely essential. Here’s a list of puppy supplies to get.

Bringing my new puppy home

How should I potty train my new puppy?

How does my puppy learn?

So how do I train him?

How do I get my puppy to walk by my side?

How do I socialize my puppy?

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Bringing My New Puppy Home

You’ll want your puppy to feel comfortable and at home when he gets to your house. So to help him, bring something from his old home to his new home. Take two or three cloth towels and ask all the people at his old home (or shelter) to rub the towels on their arms and hands. Then rub the towels on your puppy’s littermates and on his mother. If you are picking him up in the car or if he is being shipped to you, put one towel in his crate so he can take with him all the smells that are familiar to him. Expect that he will pee or poop on it — that’s why you have one or two spares! Put one of the spares in his bed when you put him to sleep at night.

The best place for him to sleep is in his own bed, preferably a crate next to your bed. Dogs are pack animals, and you are now your puppy’s pack. Pack animals feel secure when they sleep near each other. And it also helps with potty training. You can hear him if he tells you he has to go out. Your puppy will like his crate and consider it a safe place to be. So you never want to use his crate for any kind of punishment.

Please refer to Rescue and Adopted Dogs for additional tips regarding the car ride home and your puppy’s first days at home.

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How should I potty train my new puppy?

Potty training your puppy may take some time and does not happen overnight — especially the night that you thought you would be getting a good night’s sleep! There are no magic rules or magic potions. Your involvement is essential. Routine is the key, and you play a very big role. Feed him on a set schedule rather than leaving the food down. What “goes in” on schedule “comes out” on schedule.

You can predict when he needs to eliminate and take him to his potty area immediately

  • Upon awakening
  • After eating or drinking
  • After (and sometimes during) a play session
  • If he smells the ground or asks to go out

There are five basic rules to potty training your dog which should be followed until he is trained:

  • Keep him in an enclosed area or crate if you can’t watch him.
  • Take him out to his designated toilet area.
  • Stay with him and wait for him to eliminate.
  • Use your command word for him to eliminate.
  • Praise him when he does eliminate.

Your puppy should be potty trained by the time he is six months old. If he is not, he may have a medical condition which should be checked out by a veterinarian.

Read about the Stages of Being Housebroken for Puppies.

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How does my puppy learn?

There is an old belief that you can’t train your puppy until he is six months old. That is because many of the training methods were based on fear, force, and intimidation. Those are not the methods we use at Doggie Manners.

Your puppy is learning every day whether you teach him or not. He learns through performing a behavior over and over. He learns by watching you and trying to predict your behavior. He then thinks, “Aha, I know what they are going to do next. How can I make it better for me?” Then he will try to do one of several things: he may bark to get your attention, he may bite you, he may steal something, or he may be much more creative! Or he may not care what you do at all and just lie down and go to sleep.

Puppies have two types of behaviors: innate behaviors which they are born knowing and learned behaviors which they acquire through their experiences. They don’t instinctively know what you want them to do in a given situation unless you teach them.

You can influence how your puppy acts by either rewarding him or punishing him within one third of one second (it’s that quick) after he does a behavior. He must associate his punishment or reward with what he did. If he was rewarded, chances are he will repeat that behavior. If he is punished, odds are he won’t repeat it.

But if he keeps doing something you think you are punishing him for, he is being rewarded in some way for doing whatever he did, and he’ll do it again. Let’s repeat that — if he keeps doing something you think you are punishing him for, he is being rewarded in some way. If he jumps up on you and you tell him “no” and you push him away, you are actually rewarding him in three different ways: you are looking at him, you are talking to him, and you are touching him. Many times, what you intend and how your puppy interprets what you do are two different things.

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So how do I train him?

Instead of letting situations arise haphazardly and trying to deal with something that is out of your control, set things up where you are in control of the environment, your puppy, and his reward. Teach him how to sit and have him sit for everything he wants. He doesn’t get anything for free — think of it as his way of saying “please.” You get what you want (a sit) before he gets what he wants (his dinner, a walk, a ride in the car, etc.) If he doesn’t sit and say “please,” he doesn’t get his dinner, his walk, etc.

Please refer to Rescue and Adopted Dogs and Training Tips for additional information on training and care of a new puppy.

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How do I get my puppy to walk by my side?

The old way of training was to put a leash on your puppy and let him drag it around so he could get used to it. What that taught him is that he could go wherever he wanted when the leash was attached!!! So what happens when you pick up the other end of the leash and want him to walk next to you? He has learned that the leash is meaningless, and he pulls you wherever he wants to go. Then you get upset as he grows and gets bigger because he is pulling your arm out of its socket.

So, to prevent your puppy from pulling you all over the place, before you attach a leash to his collar, attach the loop end of the leash to a large, heavy stationary object such as the leg of your couch. Then he cannot move, and you can handle him by grooming him or examining him like a veterinarian would. Just ignore all the wiggling and release him when he is calm. Then put the leash on him and take him for a walk. You stop if he pulls. You have now taught him that if he wants to go for a walk, he must walk by your side. If he tries to get ahead of you, you stop and he goes nowhere. Be consistent and do this every time his leash is attached. He will soon learn to walk by your side easily and happily.

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How do I socialize my new puppy?

Socialization cannot be overemphasized. It means much more than having puppy be around other dogs and people. It means getting him used to walking on novel surfaces, seeing all sorts of shapes and movement, hearing new sounds, smelling different smells, and a whole lot more.

Your puppy learns so much by the time he is 14 weeks old. He was born blind and deaf. All he knew how to do was nurse and move around a bit. He couldn’t even go to the bathroom by himself — his mother had to stimulate him. By the time he is 16 weeks, he can see, hear, walk and run (although he still is a little clumsy), and he has learned a lot. He has begun to explore the world. His experiences in these first four months of his life will last him a lifetime.

He needs a lot of experiences in his early life so he can use them as a foundation or anchor for the rest of his life. The more experiences he has, the more well adjusted he will be. And the easier he will be to live with. Why? Because he will already be familiar with the sights, smells, sounds, etc. that he will encounter in his adult life. If he doesn’t have this base of reference, then novel experiences very probably will be frightening. And there is an additional benefit for you: it will make living with him much easier and more enjoyable.

Remember that your puppy is learning every day whether you are teaching him or not, so please begin training and socializing as soon as you can so that he learns what you want him to do.

You may read more about socializing your puppy and also get a FREE PUPPY SOCIALIZATION CHECKLIST by clicking here.

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Doggie Manners has a program especially for puppies, and we work with you to customize your puppy’s training to your needs and show you how to socialize your puppy so he will grow up to be a well-adjusted and well-behaved dog. Please go to Los Angeles Puppy Kindergarten Training Classes or our Puppy Manners Private Lessons (which includes the group classes) to look at our programs.

Training doesn’t take place overnight. Be patient, and give yourself and your puppy a chance.

I’d love to hear what your comments are about when you got a new puppy or any additions to preparing or caring for new puppy. Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog behavior consultant or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

thanks for visiting our website - preparing and caring for a new puppy

Thanks for reading about preparing and caring for a new puppy!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

New Puppy Supplies

New Puppy Supplies

new puppy supplies Los Angeles Puppy Manners Training

Let’s go shopping!

This is a list of new puppy supplies both you and your puppy will need.  The links will take you to www.DogBooksLibrary.com, which is an Amazon- and Dogwise-affiliate site where I have handpicked all the books and products.

I chose these books and products because:

  • I like and use them.
  • My dog training/behavior consultant colleagues recommend them.
  • They were rated 4 or 5 stars by Amazon users.

I have filtered out all the junk that normally comes up when you look for a category on Amazon — if you want to read about Labrador Retrievers, you don’t have to wade through the Labrador Retriever cookie cutters, Labrador Retriever jewelry, treats, etc., dog books and dog products with less than 4 stars, and duplicate entries.

A portion of the profits from Dog Books Library goes to the Morris Animal Foundation and the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Foundation for research on diseases of dogs.

And if that’s not enough reason to come to Dog Books Library — The other sites are not very attractive and are boring! Dog Books Library has humorous photographs and a very cozy feeling.  Please use it and come back again and again to see what’s new — and let others know about us, too.

The Front End – The Mouth

Food & Treats

•    Water
•    Puppy food and Water bowl
•    High quality food (Flint River Ranch is the one I recommend. It’s made in the USA with USA ingredients.)
•    High quality treats

Chewing & Biting Toys and Supplies for Puppies

•    Food dispensing toys
•    Chew toys
•    Balls
•    Puzzle toys
•    Squeaky toys
•    Activity toys
•    Bitter Apple

The Back End – Puppy Clean-up

•    Poop clean-up bags
•    Enzyme cleaner
•    Puppy potty box

Sleeping (Beds) & Confinement (Crates & X-Pens)

•    Crate – plastic or wire
•    Tether
•    Bed
•    Baby gate
•    Exercise pen

Comforting & Calming Supplies for your New Puppy

Exercise & Outdoor Puppy Supplies

•    ID tag
•    Microchip – go to your vet for this
•    Flat collar
•    Harness for small dogs
•    Leash

Puppy Grooming Supplies

•    Brush
•    Comb
•    Nail clippers
•    Shampoo & rinse

Puppy Books

These are the four core books I recommend.

  • Puppy Socialization – my book, which is the only book on puppy socialization written by a certified dog trainer
    PS paperback or PS Kindle  puppy socialization book
  • Puppy Potty Training – my book on housebreaking, which is *very* funny as well as informative
    PPT paperback B&W, PPT paperback full color,  or Kindle puppy potty training book
  • My Smart Puppy – a book on all aspects of puppy training and behavior 
    MSP paperback
    or MSP Kindle
  • The Other End of the Leash – a dog psychology book that shows us that puppies and dogs think differently than we do
    TOEOTL Paperback or TOEOTL Kindle

PUPPY MISCELLANEOUS

•    List of service providers: vet, emergency vet, groomer, dog walker
•    House rules for the whole family to follow (Is puppy allowed on     the furniture?  Who is going to feed puppy?  Who is going to clean up puppy messes?)

I’d love to hear what your comments are when you purchased new puppy supplies.  Please share your experiences with your new puppy or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational only.  It does not replace a consultation with a dog behavior consultant or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

thanks for visiting our website - new puppy supplies

Thanks for visiting New Puppy Supplies!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

New Rescue Dog Supplies

Supplies You Need
for Your New Rescue or Adopted Dog

portrait of a dog with dollar signs and piggy bank - new rescue dog supplies

Please get me the right stuff!

The basic supplies your dog will need are

These are just some of the basic supplies and equipment.  Be sure to ask the rescue volunteers or shelter workers about any additional equipment and supplies you need at home.

I’d love to hear what your comments are about new rescue dogs supplies Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for informational only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog behavior consultant or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

thanks for visiting our website - new rescue dog supplies

Thanks for visiting New Rescue Dog Supplies!

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Unleashed Dog

What Can I Do When
an Unleashed Dog Approaches Me?

unleashed dog

I’m gonna getcha!

You do have some choices to make when you encounter a unleashed dog. There is no way anyone can tell you which is the right choice. These are suggestions and ideas gleaned from experience and from research. They are NOT prescriptions for protection. These are options from which you can choose (sometimes in a split second) and can in no way be construed as advice of what you should do. The only way you know if it was the right choice was if no one gets hurt, and that, unfortunately, is after the fact. There are risks in any situation where you are dealing with a dog that is approaching you.

What are some preventive measures I can take?

How can I tell if the unleashed dog is friendly?

When might a dog aggress?

What can I do with my dog if an unleashed dog approaches?

What can I do if the dog is intent on approaching me?

What can I do if the unleashed dog attacks me and/or my dog?

What do I do after the dog attacks me and/or my dog?

What can I tell my children if an unleashed dog approaches them?

How are dog bites classified?

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It can be frightening if you are walking either alone or with your dog and an unleashed dog comes toward you, and these questions may run through your mind:

  • Is there something I could have done to prevent this?
  • Is he friend or foe?
  • How should I react?
  • How should my dog react?
  • Is there anything I can do?
  • What can I do if I get bitten?
  • What can I do if my dog gets bitten?

I generally am in favor of positive methods of training, and many unleashed dogs are more of a nuisance than a threat. The tone of this article may seem harsh, and it may seem like every offleash dog is a real threat. That is not my intent. What is my intent is to give you options on what to do if you encounter an unleashed dog.

My personal feeling is that I am responsible for my dogs and me, and our safety comes first. If it’s a choice between our safety and what someone else thinks of me, I opt for safety. I have a split second to make a decision, and I will do what is needed and then deal with whatever the consequences are.

That being said, I am responsible for my own dogs but not for other people’s dogs. A dog may have escaped his yard or slipped out of his collar. That is an unfortunate situation, but that dog is not under anyone’s control. If there is any possible way that I can make my dogs safe and rescue a dog who I think is not a threat to me, then I will do that. That may be accomplished by putting my dogs into my car or quickly taking them home so I can come back to help the unleashed dog. But there are situations where this is impossible and where the unleashed dog is intent on approaching us. That’s why I have written this article.

There are some instances where you can avoid a confrontation and others where the approaching dog is going to attack you no matter what you do. There are a lot of factors at play:

  • timing
  • dog-dog communication
  • dog-people communication
  • everyone’s intent
  • your reading the dog’s body language

It’s very complex. Every situation is unique, and it is important to assess every circumstance individually and determine whether to put yourself, your dog, or anyone else at risk. Please understand that there are absolutely no guarantees that any of these suggestions will work. I am not giving you advice or telling you what to do. These are simply ideas to make you aware of alternative actions. They range from telling the dog to go away to severely wounding or killing the dog. With that in mind, please understand that

  • Some of these ideas contradict each other.
  • Some suggestions may work for small dogs but may not work with large dogs.
  • There are some things you could do if you have a dog with you and some you could do if you are by yourself.
  • Some ideas will stop certain dogs and will intensify the attack of other dogs.
  • Some of these suggestions may require more force than you are willing to use.
  • Some may not be enough force for the situation you find yourself in.
  • Some suggestions can be used alone; others can be used in combinations.

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What are some preventive measures I can take?

  • If you have walked through that area before and know there are unleashed dogs there, just use common sense and simply don’t walk there.
  • Be aware of which dog belongs to which house so if he gets out, you can tell the owner that his dog has been running loose and ask him to keep his dog confined.
  • You can report the unleashed dog to Animal Control. Many times Animal Control officers are aware of a problem, and your report may be the one that finally gets some action.
  • You can be aware of your surroundings. If you see any unleashed dogs, avoid the area where they are. If possible, turn the corner, change your direction, or go behind a car. Do anything you can so the dog does not see you.
  • You can determine ahead of time how you will act in this situation and rehearse it several times, similar to what flight attendants do in case there is an emergency onboard an airplane.
  • You can train your dog in a simulated situation how to respond and act by deferring to you and letting you protect him. This will take a lot of preparation and training, but it can diffuse a situation and is well worth your time.
  • You can wear clothing that will not hinder you such as flip-flops, sandals, or shorts. Wear shoes that tie or fit securely.
  • You can put yourself between your dog and the oncoming dog.
  • You can carry a cell phone so that if something should happen, you can call Animal Control, the police, or anyone else IMMEDIATELY and give them any information you can: a description of the dog and/or owner if he is present and/or the make, model, and license number of his car, etc.
  • You can call 911 and tell the police that at that moment, you are being threatened by a vicious dog. A cautionary note: do not call the police to report something that happened to you five minutes ago. Only call them if the danger is present and immediate. You can, however, and should call Animal Control to inform them of the incident to protect yourself and others from its happening in the future.
  • You can carry a camera with you so you can show dogs running loose to Animal Control or document any other occurrence so it is not your word against someone else’s.

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How can I tell if the unleashed dog is friendly?

Look at how the dog carries himself — his body language — to determine whether he is a goofball, is fear aggressive, or is dominant aggressive. (There are Web sites which give descriptions and pictures of various body postures, and you can do a search for dog body language to find them.) There are different ways to handle an approaching offleash dog depending on your assessment of which category he falls into.

Some dogs bark and whine or are all hyped up in anticipation or even have their tails wagging. They may start out looking like they want to play and actually begin playing, but then they go too far for your dog’s comfort, and your dog signals them to back off. They don’t back off, and then the fight begins. Some dogs may just give off an aggressive display hoping that no one will challenge them – their thinking is that the best defense is a good offense.

If you can determine whether the dog is a goofball, fear aggressive, or dominant aggressive, then the way to handle each of these behavior types is different.

A goofball or rude dog who just wants to greet your dog generally comes toward you with a loose body:

  • His tail is wagging easily from side to side.
  • He is casually running towards you and his body is loose.
  • His eyes are open and soft, his mouth is open and his tongue is flapping.
  • He almost looks like he’s smiling.

This dog may not have any knowledge of your dog’s personal boundaries and may run up to him wanting to play. He probably has not had much obedience training because his owners think he doesn’t need it because he is so friendly. He will invade your dog’s personal space and expect your dog to play with him. When your dog declines his invitation, a fight may occur.

You can put your body between him and your dog and tell him to stop and go away. For further suggestions, read: What can I do if I think a dog is intent on approaching me? What can I do with my dog if an unleashed dog approaches?

A fear aggressive dog will put on an aggressive display.

He will run up to you but he makes himself look small by lowering his body. Then he will back away or run behind something.

  • He will growl and bark in a high-pitched bark.
  • His nose is wrinkled.
  • The corners of his mouth are back, his lips may be curled, and his teeth may or may not be showing. The wider his mouth is open, the more aggressive he is.
  • His eyes are squinting and the pupils are dilated.
  • His ears are back. His back may or may not be arched.
  • He has his hackles up (the hair at his shoulders and the base of his tail).
  • His tail may or may not be tucked between his legs, and it is not moving.

You can give him some room. You can also tell him to go home or give an obedience command such as Sit or Down. If you yell at him to go away, then he may retreat. When the dog retreats, you retreat also, but keep the dog in your view without looking directly at him. Do not turn around. If you do, he very likely will bite you from behind.

A dominant aggressive dog looks very confident. Everything about his body makes him look as big as possible.

  • He stands tall and his body comes forward.
  • He will bark with a deep bark that seems like it’s coming from his toes or he will be totally silent.
  • His nose is wrinkled with the teeth showing.
  • The corner of his mouth is forward, his lips are curled and the teeth and gums are showing. The wider his mouth is open, the more aggressive he is.
  • His eyes are squinting and he is very focused.
  • His ears are forward.
  • His neck is extended forward.
  • His hackles are up.
  • His back is straight.
  • His tail is held up or straight behind him and is still or is wagging very stiffly.

A dominant aggressive dog will run up to you and threaten and attack you while facing you or from any angle he can. He is not fooling around. He wants to attack you, period.

The majority of this article contains options for dealing with these types of dogs.

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When might a dog aggress?

A dog can bite at any time for any reason. Remember that dogs are predators – all dogs, even the fluffy one that may be sitting beside you now. Given the right set of circumstances, any dog can bite.

That being said, when there are certain conditions present, the likelihood of a dog’s biting increases in these instances:

To protect

  • His owner or family
  • His yard or territory
  • His owner’s property
  • His owner’s vehicle
  • The area surrounding the owner’s property
  • The area surrounding the owner’s vehicle
  • The space around him
  • Any area that the dog *perceives* as his own because he is walked there regularly
  • A toy
  • Puppies
  • When he is eating food or a bone
  • When he is excited
  • When he does not know you
  • When his prey response has been triggered
  • If he is uncomfortable with the way you look (if you are wearing a hat or sunglasses or a beard or if you walk with a limp or a cane, etc.)
  • If you smell differently than he is used to or if you wear a cologne that is the same as someone who has injured or teased him in the past
  • Himself if he is ill or injured

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What can I do with my dog if an unleashed dog approaches?

Prevention is the key, and avoiding the area is best.

  • You can train your dog ADD when you are in a less distracting environment to look to you for direction. If you use a crisis situation to train your dog, you are setting yourself (and your dog) up for failure and possible injury.
  • You can try to make it a pleasant experience and say happily to your dog, “There’s a dog coming. Let’s be friendly.”
  • You can circle rather than move in a straight line and let the unleashed dog see and/or sniff your dog’s rear end.
  • You can reward your dog for keeping his attention focused on you rather than on the other dog. Carry your dog’s absolutely most favorite treats to use as rewards.
  • You can teach your dog that whenever another dog approaches, he should look to you for a treat.
  • You can feed your dog before your walk so he will be more relaxed during the walk.
  • You can drop your dog’s leash.
  • You can pick your dog up. If you pick up your dog, it most likely will not stop the attack, and the dog can include you as a target as well.
  • You can teach your dog to walk on a loose leash. A tight leash telegraphs anxiety from you to your dog and will likely heighten your dog’s tension.
  • You can teach your dog that whenever another dog approaches, you can step between him and the other dog to protect him from the other dog.
  • You can teach your dog to sit behind you.

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What can I do if the dog is intent on approaching me?

There are a lot of factors at play here: your experience and observational skills; your preparation and emotional state; the amount of force you are willing to use; the size, breed, gender, and temperament of the approaching dog; your dog’s training, size, breed, gender, and temperament.

Generally speaking, do not look the dog directly in the eyes. This is a threat to the approaching dog.

  • You can talk to the unleashed dog in an upbeat voice. It may be that that is all that is needed for the dog to turn around and leave.
  • Move very slowly and speak confidently – lower your voice and tell the dog to go away.
  • You can step forward, stamp your foot, put up your hand to signal him to stop and yell, “No. Go home,” or, “Get out of here,” or something similar.
  • You can yell to the dog to come to you – some dogs interpret the word “come” as a signal to run away because they have disobeyed their owners so many times, that’s what the word means to them!
  • You can tell him to sit or lie down.
  • If you are alone, you can stand still and let him sniff you. You can extend your hand *slowly* in a fist in a nonthreatening gesture, keeping it low with the palm down, making sure that you do not put your hand over the top of the dog’s head.
  • You can slowly crouch down, avoid eye contact, and speak to the dog in a gentle but firm manner.
  • If the owner is present, you can tell him to call his dog. If the owner says that his dog is friendly, tell him yours is not, even if he is. Tell him your dog has a communicable disease. Tell him your dog has just had surgery and can’t play. Tell him whatever you have to in order to get his dog away from yours.
  • You can carry food with you and throw it at the dog. It may buy you some time as you are leaving.
  • You can carry a tennis ball with you and throw it so the dog might chase it.
  • You can go into a store, a car, or a gated yard and close the door or gate.
  • You can go into a yard with the unleashed dog following you, throw some food on the ground away from you, and then exit the yard closing the gate with the dog inside the yard.
  • You can leave the area. If you leave, do not turn your back to the dog. Slowly back away. Do not run. If you run, that will engage the dog’s prey drive. He can run faster than you.
  • You can climb a tree or get on top of something such as a car.
  • You can stand still like a statue, turn your body sideways to the dog, not look at him, but be aware of where he is. Sometimes movement triggers a herding instinct or predatory behavior.
  • You can kick the dog to try to stop the dog from attacking your dog. If this dog jumps at you, then you can quickly move to the side so he will miss his target (you). As he goes by, you can kick him in the ribs. Chances are this will not disable the dog but he will come back at you again. It may buy you some time to get away.
  • It is very dangerous to grab an unleashed dog by his collar or to put your hands anywhere near his head whether he is fighting or not.
  • You can carry something as a deterrent. If you choose to carry something, it must be IN YOUR HAND as you are walking, and you must be ready to use it IMMEDIATELY. You will not have the time to fumble in a purse or pocket to fish it out. Again, a word of caution: any deterrent may increase rather than decrease the unleashed dog’s aggression, and some of these are illegal in some jurisdictions and some require training prior to use. Check with your local authorities so your actions don’t come back to haunt you later.

Here are some things that you can carry as a deterrent.  I’ve also included links where you may order them from Amazon.

  • A loud whistle
  • An air horn
  • A starter’s pistol
  • A can of compressed air
  • Citronella spray
  • A container of lemon juice (shaped like a lemon from the supermarket)
  • A water bottle filled with a lemon juice/water mixture
  • An ultrasonic device
  • Any spray that will disable but not permanently harm the eyes of the aggressor
  • Pepper spray (Check with local authorities as to legality.)
  • A throw net
  • A piece of rubber hose
  • A walking stick
  • A firm wooden stick
  • A self-opening umbrella (You can open it as he is approaching as a startle device or use it to hide behind to try to confuse the attacker make your dog disappear. You can also use it to discourage the attack.)
  • Any object that is in the environment (such as a chair) that you can put between you and the dog
  • A hammer
  • A fireplace poker
  • A cattle prod (Check with local authorities as to legality.)
  • A large barbeque or cooking fork

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What can I do if the unleashed dog attacks me and/or my dog?

  • If you are alone and the dog bites you, you can *freeze* and not move or scream. This may stop the dog or limit him to one bite.
  • If you are alone and the dog is going for your leg, you can let him bite your leg and then choke him. (If he is attacking your dog, you can stand behind him and choke him as well.) But you have to choke him to unconsciousness or even death. If he blacks out and then wakes up, he can then go after you again.
  • If you are attacked, you can protect your face and neck. If you are knocked to the ground, you can curl up into a ball and cover your neck and face with your arms. As difficult as it is, lie still and be quiet.
  • This cannot be emphasized enough: if you choose to separate dogs that are fighting, the probability is quite high for each dog (even your own dog) to redirect his aggression on you since both dogs are in a state of hyper arousal. They are acting totally on instinct, and the target of their attack at this point is meaningless. In fact, if you get between the attacking dog and your dog or pick your dog up, you are likely to get bitten. Adrenalin is flowing through their bodies, and some dogs stay in an aroused state for days while their adrenalin level gets back to normal.
  • You can drop your dog’s leash.
  • If the dogs start posturing (one dog approaches the other head on and then puts his head and neck across the other’s withers or shoulders), you can drop your dog’s leash and be quiet. Screaming may trigger a fight response in one of the dogs. If they are just posturing (to determine without fighting who is dominant), then one will back off.
  • You can take off your jacket or shirt and throw it around the dog’s head.
  • You can give the dog something else to attack such as a sweater, a book, your purse.
  • If there is a hose nearby, you can turn it on both dogs. If that doesn’t work, you can stick it down the throat of the aggressing dog.
    You can make a ton of noise so someone will hear you and come out to help.
  • If there is another person to help, you can each pick up one dog’s hind legs and hold its rear ends over its head and *wait* for the grip to be released. If you jerk or pull them apart, there is a huge possibility that the dogs will tighten their grip with each dog, tearing away the other dog’s body part or flesh that he is attached to.
  • You have a couple of options if separating the dogs in this manner is your method of choice. You can fling the dogs away from you, but the likelihood is that the dogs will begin to fight again. You can swing each dog in a circle (so it won’t redirect his bite towards you) as you back away from the other dog. Then tie one of the dogs to something immobile or lock him in a secure area so he cannot start to fight again.
  • You can carry an extra leash and put the leash underneath the stomach and towards the thinnest part of the dog that is on top (the tuck-up) and loop the clip end through the handle so the leash acts like a choke chain to the body of the dog. *Slowly* move him toward an immobile object such as a fence that you can tie the leash to. So now one dog is unable to move. Then go to the second dog and grab his legs, wait for the grip to be released, swing him in a circle to protect yourself, and get him away from the dog that is tied.
  • If you have an extra leash, attach it to the dog that is on top and tie it to something solid. Be especially careful if you pull the dog because if he has a good grip on your dog, your pulling him can pull your dog’s flesh out.
  • You can kick the dog in the rib cage or under his jaw. Remember that if you kick, you can become unbalanced and fall. You will then need to roll into a ball and concentrate on protecting your own body.
  • You can punch the dog in the nose as hard as you can.
  • You can poke your fingers into his eyes.
  • You can pour water down the aggressor’s throat.
  • You can put some object in the aggressor’s mouth and jam it down his throat.
  • If your getting bitten is inevitable, then shove your hand or forearm down the dog’s throat in order to gag him.
  • You can hit both dogs with a physical deterrent and aim for the snout or the testicles of a male.
  • If you have a spray or chemical deterrent, you can spray that in the dog’s face. Be prepared that the spray may mist towards you, and you and/or your dog may be sprayed as well. Use short puffs at the nose and eyes of the attacker. Be prepared to spray your dog, too, if he tries to retaliate once he’s released from the bite.

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What do I do after the dog attacks me and/or my dog?

If you or your dog is attacked, wash the wound with soap and water and get immediate medical attention. If you have a camera, take a picture of the dog. Report ALL attacks to the Animal Control agency in your area. As soon as you can, WRITE DOWN the following information and any other information

  • Description of the dog
    • Size
    • Color
    • Breed
    • Sex
    • Weight
    • If the dog was wearing a collar and the type of collar
    • If the dog was wearing identification tags
  • If you have seen the dog before and where you saw it
  • Anything else to help identify the dog
  • Location of the attack
  • Time of the attack
  • People present or who witnessed the attack
  • Owner’s name if you know it
  • If the dog was a stray or you know where it lives
  • What direction or where the dog went after it bit you
  • If you have the dog in your custody or control

This information will help the Animal Control agency to determine what course of action to take. If you are in Los AngelesCounty, you can contact the Greater Los Angeles County Victim Assistance Center at (818) 380-8176 or (213) 380-9776 who can give you information regarding legal and other assistance.

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What can I tell my children if an unleashed dog approaches them?

Half of dog bite victims are children and about half involve family pets. Talk with your children about how to act around dogs they don’t know or that are running loose even if you have a dog in your house and your children have grown up around dogs.

Here are some suggestions on what to tell your children if a dog comes near them. You can tell them:

  • Not all dogs are friendly and to avoid unknown dogs
  • To stand very still like a tree and be very quiet if the dog comes near them
  • To SLOWLY put their hands around their own neck and face
  • To curl up into a ball and act like a rock by covering their face and head with their arms if the dog jumps on them
  • To move quietly and slowly and go tell an adult immediately
  • Not to look into the dog’s eyes
  • Not to run, scream, or wave their arms if the dog comes near them
  • To get off a bicycle or a skateboard around an unleashed dog
  • Not to throw anything at the dog
  • To give the dog a purse, backpack, jacket or anything else that they can put between themselves and the dog

Please refer to Dogs and Children for many, many more suggestions.

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How are dog bites classified?

Ian Dunbar (who is a veterinarian, animal behaviorist, and founder of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers) classifies bites according to their severity. His classification is as follows:

  • Level 1: The dog threatens but does not contact the skin (an air snap).
  • Level 2: The dog scratches the skin but it is not punctured
  • Level 3: The dog bites once with one to four punctures, all punctures being less shallow than the length of the dog’s canine tooth.
  • Level 4: The dog bites one to four punctures that are deeper than the length of the dog’s canine teeth and with severe bruising.
  • Level 5: The dog bites with multiple bites or multiple attacks.
  • Level 6: Death.

Disclaimer: You do have some choices to make when you encounter an unleashed dog. There is no way anyone can tell you which is the right choice. These are suggestions and ideas gleaned from experience and from research. They are NOT prescriptions for protection. These are options from which you can choose (sometimes in a split second) and can in no way be construed as advice of what you should do. The only way you know if it was the right choice was if no one gets hurt, and that, unfortunately, is after the fact. There are risks in any situation where you are dealing with a dog that is approaching you.

Read more about solving Dog Behavior Problems.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. What suggestions do you have regarding dogs that are unleashed approaching you and your dog? Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

Thanks for visiting our website - What can I do if an unleashed dog approaches me?

Thanks for reading What can I do if an unleashed dog approaches me?

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Frightening Encounter with Offleash Dog

Frightening Encounter
with an Offleash Dog

Rottweiler And Leash in mouth - frightening encounter with offleash dog

Please keep me on leash!

I’ve lived in West Los Angeles in a middle class, well-populated neighborhood for about five years. Most people with dogs are very respectful and courteous. Never did I think this would happen to me.

This morning at about 7:30, I was walking my dogs on the same route I take every morning, and about a block from home, an offleash dog came out of nowhere running up to us ready to attack. He was 60+ pounds and a lab mix. The hair on his back was up from his neck to his tail. This dog meant business.

Fortunately, I had Spray Shield which I whipped out and sprayed him. It sprays a foam that temporarily blinds the dog which gives you time so you can get away. The spray actually did not reach his eyes, but the hissing sound along with my screaming “GET OUT OF HERE” was enough to stop the attack. However, he returned several times, and I kept screaming and spraying at him. No person came out to see what was going on or to help.

Then he was in such a frenzy, he ran down the street and tried to attack a man who was walking *without* a dog. The man screamed at him, and the dog took off.

I came home, very shaken, and called 911. I told them what happened and said that at this time of the morning, kids were walking to school and there are many people walking their dogs. This was a very dangerous situation. I also said that I think I know where the dog lives and gave them the address.

About two minutes later, Animal Control called me back to follow up. I told them the same story, adding that I had lived next door to that address about four years ago and that the yard was easily escapable. AC asked me if I had had any dealings with the owner (I presume to see if this was some sort of revenge on my part), and I said no. About five minutes later, the police called and were in front of that house.

I haven’t heard anything further and don’t know what happened. But I am convinced that if I had not had the Spray Shield, my dogs would be seriously injured or dead.

This rogue dog had “gone limbic.” For those of you who I have worked with because your dog has exhibited reactivity or aggression, you know what I’m talking about because I explained it in our lessons. But for those of you where we have worked on puppy stuff and basic obedience, here’s a very brief, but important, discussion.

There are two parts of the brain, the thinking or cognitive brain and the primitive or reptilian brain. We and our dogs spend most of our time in the thinking brain. When we are triggered by an event, we switch into our primitive brain. At that time, all sorts of chemicals and hormones are released in our bodies, and we are in survival mode. Think of when you’re driving on the freeway talking to your passenger about something, and a car cuts you off. You slam on the brakes. At that moment, you physiologically cannot hear anything your passenger is saying because your body is concentrating on staying alive.

Nothing happens. You don’t get into an accident. So your body starts to return to normal and you switch back into your cognitive brain. BUT your stomach falls. This sensation is the chemicals and hormones being reabsorbed into your body because you don’t need them.

The dog this morning did NOT return to normal. He was lashing out at whatever he could because he literally was not thinking straight. This was a VERY dangerous dog.

Please read my article on what to do if an unleashed dog approaches you http://www.doggiemanners.com/art_unleashed_dog_aggression.html , and please, please, please protect yourself. Carry one of the physical deterrents mentioned in the article and also get some Spray Shield here http://tinyurl.com/nhgyfvv or at your local pet store.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. Have you had any experiences with offleash dogs attacking you?  What did you do? What was the outcome? Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Thanks for reading Frightening Encounter with an Offleash dog

Thanks for reading Frightening Encounter with an Off Leash Dog!

Disclaimer: This article is for informational only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog behavior consultant or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with dog training or puppy training in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Choosing a Dog Trainer

Choosing a Dog Trainer

choosing a dog trainer in los angeles

Yes, I can choose!

Choosing a Puppy Dog Trainer

 

When looking for a trainer, do your homework and ask some questions. You’re talking about training your best friend here, and virtually anyone can call himself or herself a dog trainer. Simply print up some business cards, advertise, and voila, you’re a dog trainer. There is no licensing requirement, no mandatory test, no nothing. Scary, isn’t it?

So how do you choose?

  • Ask your friends and relatives for recommendations.
  • If you see a well-behaved dog on your outings, ask its owner/guardian where it was trained.
  • Ask local rescue groups or breed rescue groups who they work with.
  • Ask your veterinarian, groomer, or pet store. Go to a dog show and get information there.
  • Then visit the trainer’s Website. Do you like what he or she says and how it is said? That’s a big clue as to whether you will be able to work together. Some trainers are very cryptic on their sites — they’re either simply advertisements or they write in “sound bites” and give you the barest amount of information. That may be a clue as to the way they train or as to the diversity — or lack of diversity — in their training methods. Or they may be new to training. If a trainer simply talks about their family or how they have “always loved dogs,” that’s a signal that there may not be a lot of experience.
  • Are they a member of any trainer organizations? If they are, then that shows an interest in furthering themselves in their profession rather in their pocketbook. Go to their Testimonials page. Boy, if you want to REALLY learn about how clients have been helped, there is no hype here, just grateful clients giving their assessments of how the trainer helped them. Ask if you can speak to a couple of the people for recommendations.
  • Then you want to talk to the trainer personally on the phone to get a sense of whether you would like to work with this person. Ask about their background and experience. Then go to see their classes. Look at the trainer — how they dress and their hygiene (Are the clothes dirty or full of holes? Is their hair combed?) Look at the methods they use and ask yourself if you would be comfortable using those methods. Ask the students if what the trainer has showed them has worked for their dog.

While all trainers can generally train the basic obedience (read about the Methods below) and manners exercises, there are some trainers who specialize in their particular sport or interest, i.e., obedience competition or agility. You may want to find a trainer who specifically “pre” trains for what you are interested in. There may be some parts of their training that are geared to their own personal interest (if you’re in a class and that trainer knows you are not going to participate in “their” sport, they might not pay as much attention to you), so ask questions carefully and listen to their answers. If you simply want training or manners for your pet dog, then ask yourself whether you need a trainer who competes in agility.

You want to know who your trainer is because they will be training YOUR dog. If you visit a Website and there is no trainer’s name and/or no qualifications, how do you know what kind of trainer you are getting? Many dog walking services and day cares offer training as a supplement to their services. Dog walkers or day care staff generally are NOT dog trainers — many have no training. Hiring them to train your dog may be simply a way for the dog walking service or day care to earn more money. Make sure that you know the trainer’s qualifications and experience. It should be on their Website.

Also, some dog training businesses are franchised, which means they pay for a corporation to market their services. Have these trainers gone through training to train dogs or training to make money? Their total training — both dog training and business training — many times is only six weeks — or less! Remember that the best sales person is not the best dog trainer. Telling you what you want to hear on the phone is not the same as training your dog when they come to your home.

Read the rest of this article for other ways to determine whether a trainer is the right one for you.

What are the qualifications of a good dog trainer?

What kind of dog trainer do I need?

What format is best?

What questions should I ask a dog trainer?

What about fees?

What is a certified dog trainer anyway?

What about these other dog trainer organizations?

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What are the qualifications of a good dog trainer?

Trainers first and foremost *must* like people and have people skills because they are training owners/guardians to train their dogs. If you get a bad vibe from that trainer or just have a “funny feeling” — no matter what their recommendations or qualifications are — go elsewhere.

Trainers should also know something about whether a dog is healthy or not because if a dog is ill, then he will not learn as readily and may even exhibit withdrawal, refusal, or aggressive behavior. What does that mean? If a dog is sick, he may be aggressive simply because he is doesn’t feel well but is fine when not ill. If a dog is deaf, he certainly cannot hear your commands — some trainers mistake that for disobedience!  (That actually happened to a well-known trainer that I know personally.)

The trainer should be able to read dogs’ body language, so they should know characteristics of the various breeds and how it impacts your particular dog’s teaching and learning.

Generally speaking, you should find out the trainer’s qualifications, length of time training, what their education is, what training methods they use, as well as asking for references. Many trainers offer this information on their Web sites as well as testimonials from satisfied clients.

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What kind of dog trainer do I need?

There is a difference between a dog trainer, a dog behavior consultant or behavior counselor, a dog behaviorist, and veterinary behaviorist. A dog trainer looks into the future (no, they’re not clairvoyants) and has a specific goal or picture in mind as to exactly what task your dog should do. Any type of dog behaviorist, counsultant, or counselor helps in solving a problem — digging, chewing, house soiling, jumping up, aggression, etc. — by looking into the past (no, they don’t look into your dog’s past lives — or yours either!) at what may be causing your dog to act the way he does and then uses the specific tasks taught in dog training as well as behavior modification (for both you and your dog) to help solve the problems.

A dog trainer trains you and your dog to do specific commands — sit, stay, heel, come, etc.

A dog behavior consultant or dog behavior counselor helps you and your dog with problem behaviors — jumping on people, aggression, separation anxiety, fear, etc.

A dog behaviorist is a person who has a degree in animal behavior.

A veterinary behaviorist is a veterinarian who specializes in treating behavior problems, runs medical tests, and uses drugs to modify your dog’s behavior.

So if you want help on, let’s say, aggression, a person who only trains classes in obedience (or one who is just starting out as a trainer) may not be the best one for you. However, many behavior consultants — myself included — call themselves “trainers” because that’s what the general public calls them and because we do use specific commands in helping to solve some behavior problems in conjunction with behavior modification. But teaching your dog to perform a specific behavior such as Sit is very different than dealing with the underlying causes of behavioral issues.

Another example of choosing the right trainer for you is if you some day want to do search and rescue work with your dog, you may want a trainer who is familiar with search and rescue so your dog’s early training is compatible with your ultimate goals.

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What dog training format is best?

There are basically five formats: group classes, private lessons for training you and your dog, home training, board and train, or a combination of any or all of the formats.

Group dog classes are with a number of people and dogs generally held at a set time and place with a set format. They teach mechanical skills – Sit, Down, etc.  They generally do not address behavior issues such as aggression or separation anxiety. The trainer may or may not work with you individually at each class. Class sizes range from four to 30+. The larger the class, the lesser the individual attention.

Private dog training or behavior lessons are held at a time and place mutually acceptable to you and the trainer. The trainer works with you (individually or with your family members) and shows you how to train your dog and/or works with you regarding behavior issues.

Home training or day training is when a trainer comes to your house several times a week and trains your dog for you.  Then there are transfer sessions to show you how to transfer the training to your dog.

Board and train is where you send your dog away for training.

Training works best if you are involved in the process at some point. Otherwise, the trainer can get your dog to behave, but you can’t. Since the trainer is not living with your dog 24/7 and you are, you need to know how to get the desired response from your dog — and what to do if your dog doesn’t respond the way you think it should.

There may be a difference between what you think you need and what the trainer thinks you need. Group classes are for teaching obedience skills — sit, down, come, stay, etc., and some specialty training such as agility. These are mechanical skills for you and your dog. Classes are for teaching cues or commands to groups of people. If your dog tears up your house while you are away, that is a behavior issue which is best addressed in private sessions because the trainer or behavior consultant needs to work with you individually to develop a program specifically to meet the needs of you and your dog. So obedience training and behavior modification are very different.

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What questions should I ask a dog trainer?

General Information

  • What is the cost, and what is the method of payment?
  • What are the exercises and/or procedure used?
  • Does the trainer provide handouts or written materials?
  • What kind of equipment is used? Will you need to bring it yourself, or is it furnished?
  • Has the trainer had experience with your breed of dog or the issue you need help with?
  • Should all your family members attend the training?
  • What kind of insurance does the trainer carry?
  • Does the trainer give information about care and ownership?
  • Will the trainer give referrals and recommendations, or are there some testimonials on his or her Web site? (If there are testimonials, they should say something other than “this is a great trainer.”)
  • Does the trainer belong to or work with any obedience clubs, dog-related organizations, or rescue groups?
  • Does the trainer offer a guarantee? The answer should be NO. There are so many variables in temperament of dog (and their owners/guardians!!!) that a trainer should not make a guarantee as to the outcome of his or her training but should guarantee the thoroughness of his or her professional services. If a guarantee is offered, find out exactly what it is for.

Think about this: Can you guarantee your own behavior? I know how I tend to act, but I would never guarantee that I would act one exact way 100% of the time. I generally drive at the speed limit, but have I ever exceeded it? Yup. Have I ever not stopped at a stop sign? Oops, yup to that one, too. If a trainer guarantees his training, he guarantees that your dog will *always* do what he’s supposed to do 100% of the time. Is that feasible?

Dog Trainer Background and Experience

How did the trainer become a trainer, and what is his or her education?

  • If he or she has attended a school, how long was the school — six days, six weeks, or six months?
  • What was the curriculum?
  • How much hands-on experience did he or she have during learning or was it a correspondence course?

Many trainers (like myself) did not attend a formal school but have had a variety of sources of learning such as working with other trainers, going to seminars, reading books and viewing videos, belonging to and participating in trainer associations.

There are some people who may seem to have a natural knack with dogs who have had no formal schooling or education — but they are very, very, very, very rare and generally cannot explain or transfer what they are doing so you can duplicate it. If your dog only “behaves” when the trainer is there, do you plan to have the trainer move in with you?

  • What experience does the trainer have and with whom?
  • How long has he or she been training on his/her own?
  • Has his or her philosophy of training changed since he or she started training? If so, how and why? If not, why?
  • Does the trainer train full time or part time, and for how long? If it’s a full-time occupation, then the trainer has fully invested himself or herself in training you and your dog. If it’s part time, training may be something he or she enjoys as a side job or it may be a way to supplement income while learning something else or waiting to change occupations.
  • Does the trainer have knowledge of your dog’s specific breed traits?
  • Has the trainer worked with the specific problem you are calling about? And what have the results been?
  • Does the trainer specialize in any type of training?
  • Does the trainer keep up with innovations in training, tools, and techniques — in other words, does he regularly attend any seminars or conventions?
  • Does the trainer belong to any professional organizations, and what are the qualifications for those organizations? Does the trainer become a member by simply paying a fee? qualifying through taking an examination? agreeing to abide by guidelines? being recommended by other professionals?
  • Is the trainer certified? (See below about certification.)
  • Does the trainer read books, articles, magazines, and/or belong to any dog trainer Internet forums to discuss training methods? This is *really* important because networking and learning new methods can only help you and your dog.
  • Does the trainer have any dogs of his own?????? If not, why not?

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Methods Used in  Dog  Training

You need to be comfortable with how the trainer works with you and your dog.

The “hot” question today is about punishment. There are a lot of trainers that say they don’t use punishment. But it depends on what the definition is. Webster’s definition is imposing a penalty for a behavior. Having to pay a penalty decreases the likelihood of that behavior recurring in the future. So when you’re driving your car and the light turns red, you’re being punished because the presence of the red light is preventing you from going forward.

If you say “no” to your dog, you are trying to punish him — I say “trying” because sometimes it works to stop the behavior and sometimes it doesn’t. If you’re screaming at him to stop doing something and he doesn’t stop, then what does that mean? You may think you are punishing your dog, but what your dog interprets as punishment is different. Many of my clients want to teach their dog the meaning of “no” without teaching him what to do in the first place. In many instances, it’s easier to teach him what to do than stop him from doing it.

But, let’s differentiate between punishment and abuse. Punishment means subjecting a person or animal to a penalty for a wrongdoing, and discipline implies restricting your dog in order to bring him under control. An example of discipline is having your dog sit until you release him to go for a walk so he won’t barge out the door. Punishment when it is used as discipline or as a teaching tool is not abuse but more as a penalty for overstepping his bounds. And not all punishment is physical — see the paragraph above about “no.”

Abuse is treating someone or something with intent to injure, harm, or damage. Abuse is hanging your dog on a choke chain if he digs a hole in your yard. Abuse is kicking your dog when you are angry with him. Trainers should not abuse dogs — nor should anyone else.

Trainers should not do anything that you makes you uncomfortable. However, they should expand your knowledge by showing you different ways to get the behavior you want. If what you were doing was working, then you wouldn’t be asking a trainer. Remember the “Dr. Phil” question: “How’s that working for you?”

Trainers all use punishment (even though some may deny it) — but it’s when, how, and how much it is used that is important. When a dog is being taught a behavior, is he being shown what you want and then rewarded when he does it correctly, or does he get corrected when he does not do it right? Is the majority of the training guidance based or punishment based? Punishment should be a small part of the training — training should be at least 95% praise and reward.

There are basically three types of trainers — the traditional trainers, the positive trainers, and the balanced trainers.

The traditional dog trainers, generally speaking, use methods that were developed in the military — they rely heavily on choke chains and corrections and think the dog should work for praise only. Here’s my analogy — if you go to work every day and your boss says, “Nice job,” and then never gives you a paycheck, how long are you going to work there? Besides that, words are just sounds to dogs. They need something more concrete than a simple sound or a smile to pay them – if you were paid $1.00/hour, would you go to work? That’s about the value some dogs put on your saying “good dog.”

Your dog is doing a cost-benefit analysis every moment of his life, and that includes around distractions. He’s going to do what he thinks is best for him at that particular moment, not what you think is best for him. So if jumping on you is more rewarding than Sit, then he’s going to jump.

But I’m digressing again.  Sorry.

The positive dog trainers try to set up situations where your dog can only do the right thing and then reward him for doing it. They tend to shy away from positive punishment. In theory, that’s a great idea. But many times, it doesn’t work because you don’t have control of the environment every moment of every day – and it also may not work because your dog is smart enough to know when he is in training mode and when everyday life occurs.

Then there are the balanced dog trainers, and that’s where I fall. But even within the balanced trainers, there are differences — some tend to favor punishment and some tend to favor rewards. I fall into the last category.

Dog Training Classes

  • Who teaches the classes, the trainer or an assistant?
  • Does each class member get individual help?
  • Are puppies and adult dogs in the same class?
  • Do you get written instructions or something else that you can refer to after you meet with the trainer?
  • Are there vaccine or other health requirements?
  • Is there a maximum class size?
  • Is it okay to observe a class before signing up?
  • Can you call the trainer if you have questions about the homework?
  • Can you make a class up if you have to miss one?
  • What is the refund policy?

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What about fees?

Fees are important in choosing who you are going to work with, but they should not be the only factor. The cheapest trainer may be the one with the least experience or working for a company that sets rates — or he may be just lucky enough to get a high rank on the search engines. Read more about my fees here.

We all know what our value is, and many independent trainers charge accordingly. Someone who is the cheapest but does not have a broad background may actually cost you more in the long run because his methods do not work with your dog — or it may take many more lessons than you anticipated (and budgeted for).

Speaking personally, I thought I knew more about dog training and behavior when I began training than I do now!  Every time I learn something new, I realize how much more there is to know.  What an ego crusher.

I have attended dozens and dozens of seminars and have a personal library of over 1,000 books, tapes, videos, etc. for reference. When I first started attending seminars, there was a flood of new information that was almost overwhelming. Now that I have attended all these seminars, many of them say the same thing — but there generally is something new or presented in a different light that I can use to help you for your dog. That’s why I keep attending them. And reading. Boy, do I read and watch videos. I spend an average of two hours a day learning about dog behavior and training. As I get better, my fees have increased — and YOU get service because of it.

So the bottom line — please don’t use price as your only criteria.

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What is a certified dog trainer anyway?

There are several entities that have certification programs to test the knowledge and skills of dog trainers.

There are four ways to become certified:

  • Through dog trainers’ associations
  • Through national pet store programs
  • By home study or Internet courses
  • At private dog training schools

Courses offered through the Internet, many home study courses, and private training schools are too numerous and varied to go into detail here. Those entities issue their own certification when trainers have completed their coursework. Some have qualifying tests; others do not. Some don’t even require their students to work with dogs before becoming certified. It’s up to you to do the research to find out what the trainers had to do to receive their certifications. You can do that by asking the trainer and also by checking the Websites of the certifying organizations.

There are several dog trainers associations in the United States that have certification programs where applicants must demonstrate a knowledge of dog training, equipment, and behavior. Other countries have associations that have their own certifying programs. Do your research. Investigate their Websites and talk to some of their members — ones that are not looking at you as a potential client. Many times, board members of these organizations are a good source, and you can email them.

The International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants considers each applicant on his or her own merits by a committee which evaluates that person’s training, experience, education, etc. You can learn more particulars by visiting their Website http://www.iaabc.org.

The National Association of Dog Obedience Instructors (NADOI) exam consists of 54 essay questions. There are no study materials provided (the applicant either “knows it” or doesn’t), and the test measures the applicant’s personal knowledge and experience.

The test questions cover:

  • Personal Information
  • Background Information
  • Reference Information
  • General Information regarding
  • The applicant’s training philosophy
  • Student Information
  • Instructing
  • Behavior
  • How to teach and handle situations in Private Lessons and Group Classes.

To receive a Novice/Companion certification, the applicant needs at least five years’ experience in dog training, including at least 104 hours training as a primary instructor accumulated during at least two years. If the applicant does not have the requisite hours for the Novice/Companion Endorsement, then a Provisional membership may be applied for.

Three current NADOI members individually read the test, and then each member passes the applicant.

The cost of the exam is $75.00. Every applicant must pass the exam to become a member of NADOI, which is an additional $45.00 fee. NADOI is the oldest of the trainer organizations. Its Website is www.nadoi.org.  You can find out about certification here http://www.nadoi.org/membership.htm

The Basic Trainer Skills Exam of the International Association of Canine Professionals (IACP) consists of submitting six Letters of Reference, one Training Handout Sample, a Videotape showing the applicant training four different dogs of different temperaments and skills for 10-15 minutes per dog, and three written Case Studies.

The criteria for the Videotape are as follows:

  • Exhibits Confidence
  • Creates Rapport
  • Reads Dog
  • Rewards are Well Timed and Appropriate
  • Corrections are Well Timed and Appropriate
  • Competence with Chosen Method
  • Affected Change
  • Exhibits Versatility

The criteria used for judging case studies are:

  • Evaluation/Pre-Screening
  • Sets Reasonable Goals/Objectives
  • Progression of the Lessons, Instruction of the Owner
  • Homework Assignments
  • Motivates Owner to Comply with the Training
  • Flexibility
  • Follow-up
  • Critiques
  • Letter of Reference

No study materials are provided. Three IACP members must individually pass the applicant. The cost is $150 for IACP members and $250 for nonmembers. Its Website is www.dogpro.org. Recently, they have grandfathered members into certification who have been professional members of the organization for five years.

The Certification Council for Pet Dog Trainers (CCPDT) http://www.ccpdt.org has developed certification guidelines and its examination in accordance with the Association of Pet Dog Trainers (APDT) http://www.apdt.com mission and vision statements.

Applicants need a high school diploma or equivalent and at least 300 hours experience in dog training within the last five years with 225 of those hours in actually teaching as a head trainer and 75 hours working with animals in another capacity. Applicants submit letters of reference from a veterinarian, client, and colleague.

The Certified Pet Dog Trainer (CPDT) exam is a multiple-choice, 250-question, four-hour exam covering the following areas:

  • Instruction Skills
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Ethology
  • Learning Theory
  • Equipment

A passing score is 185. There are no study materials provided. It is the only dog trainer testing program accredited by the National Organization for Competency Assurance and the only certification program whose test sites are professionally secured and moderated by the Professional Testing Corporation. The cost is $250 for APDT members and $350 for nonmembers. APDT is the largest dog trainer organization.

The Certification Council for Professional Dog Trainers has earned accreditation by the Institute for Credentialing Excellence (ICE) through their National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) for both its Certified Professional Dog Trainers – Knowledge Assessed (CPDT-KA) and Certified Behavior Consultant Canine – Knowledge Assessed (CBCC-KA) certifications. It is the only dog trainer and canine behavior certification program to earn accreditation by NCCA.

In order to achieve this milestone, CCPDT had to demonstrate compliance with the strict standards set by NCCA.   This evaluation examined all aspects of their program including administrative procedures, role delineation studies, test development, test security, standard setting, policies, board responsibilities, eligibility criteria, recertification practices, psychometric reviews, and verification of reliability and validity of the credentials.

So you can see that there are many ways for a trainer to become certified. And, then again, there are some excellent trainers who are not certified.

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What about these other dog trainer organizations?

Each organization has its own criteria for members, so it’s up to you to investigate. Also, be cognizant that there are many levels of membership — sometimes all a person needs to do is to pay money to become an associate or affiliate membership as opposed to those who are professional or clinical members. And also be aware that there are some trainers who say on their Websites they are members of organizations that don’t exist!

Whatever dog trainer you choose, do your homework. Talk with the trainer and observe a training session even if that trainer is recommended. Stay away from any trainer who will not let you watch him or her train or one that has “secret methods.” Make sure you’re comfortable with that trainer and his or her methods and philosophy before you begin. Then have fun training your dog!

If you’re still reading this, then congratulations! You REALLY are interested in getting the best trainer for your dog and you’re my kind of client and definitely someone I’d like to work with. If you’re in the Los Angeles area, then please do call me at 1-877-7-DOGGIE. I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

I’d love to hear what your comments are. What do you think about certified dog trainers? Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Disclaimer: This article is for information only. It does not replace a consultation with a dog trainer, dog behavior consultant, or veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog.

If you need help with a  dog trainer or puppy trainer in Los Angeles, please contact us. We would love to work with you!

Dog Dental Tips

Dog Dental Tips

 

dog holding toothbrush - dog dental tips

Life is short. Smile while you still have teeth.

Oral disease is the most common dog clinical disease, and 85% of dogs over four years of age have dental problems. Cleaning your dog’s teeth is extremely important because the mouth has an ample blood supply. If there is infection in your dog’s mouth, the blood can carry it throughout your dog’s body, and it can settle in your dog’s organs. Periodontal disease is associated with chronic diseases of the heart, kidneys, and liver.

Teeth Names and Functions

When to see your Vet

Dental Trauma

Definitions

Preventing Dental Problems

Dog Chewies

Brushing Your Dog’s Teeth

Teeth Cleaning

Dog Teeth Names and Functions

The front knife-like teeth, which are called incisors and canines, are for cutting through tissue and tearing raw meat. The flat back teeth, the premolars and molars, are for chewing, gnawing on, and crushing bones.

There are 28 baby or deciduous teeth which are in place when your dog is 8 weeks old. The 42 permanent teeth start erupting at 2 months, are in place by 7 months, and are settled into the jaw by 12 months. During this entire period, your dog needs to chew, chew, and chew some more to help the teeth settle in. It’s up to you to provide ample appropriate items for him to chew on. Make sure that they have different textures and consistencies– some should be hard, some should be soft, some should be smooth, some should be rough. You can also help him out by giving hIm ice, frozen bagels, and frozen carrots if his digestive system does not get upset.

Ask your vet to examine your dog’s mouth at 7 weeks and again at 7 months to see

  • if the teeth are coming in correctly
  • if there are retained baby teeth (meaning the baby teeth don’t fall out when the permanent teeth came in)
  • if your dog has extra teeth
  • if your dog has Tetracycline staining due to antibiotics taken during teeth-forming stage
  • if your dog has malformed enamel
  • if any of the teeth did not erupt and are impacted
  • if your dog’s upper and lower jaws do not meet properly and he has malocclusion (where the top and bottom jaws don’t line up) occurring from defects in cartilage growth and development.

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When to See your Vet
about your Dog’s Teeth

Look at your dog’s gums, especially at the gum line at the large teeth towards the back of the mouth. Healthy gums are pink. If your dog’s gums are a reddish color, this can be an early stage of periodontal or gum disease, and your dog’s teeth need cleaning. Other more obvious signs are bad breath and the yellow-brown tartar deposits on the teeth themselves.

Generally speaking, the older the dog and the smaller the dog, the more dental problems he will have. Dogs with long thick hair around their muzzles and those that are mouth breathers generally have more dental problems.

Just because your dog exhibits some of the following symptoms does not mean that he has dental problems. However, it’s best to be aware of the potential problems so that you can see if they get worse. The most obvious signs of your dog needing his teeth cleaned are bad breath, visible tartar, and inflamed gums. Other symptoms include:

  • bleeding, inflamed, or receded gums, which can be periodontal disease
  • loose or missing teeth
  • sensitivity around his mouth
  • lumps and bumps which can mean an abscessed tooth or tumor
  • damaged teeth
  • pimples around his mouth
  • sudden onset of drooling or bad breath
  • not eating
  • poor self-grooming
  • incessant nose licking
  • hesitancy to open or close his mouth all the way
  • decreased chewing of toys
  • pawing at his mouth
  • facial rubbing
  • sneezing
  • one-sided nasal discharge
  • favoring one side of his mouth when he chews
  • teeth grinding or chattering
  • reluctance to perform retrieves
  • personality changes
  • blood on toys or bones that he chews

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Definitions in Doggie
(and human!) Dentistry

Plaque: a mixture of food, bacteria, and saliva that sticks to the teeth. It is a thin transparent film that can only be removed by brushing or dental instruments. It can and does get below the gum line and forms a pocket which collects bacteria and damages the attachments that hold the tooth in place.

Tartar or calculus: hardened plaque. It is heaviest at the salivary gland duct openings at the large carnassial teeth (the biggest teeth) located on the upper jaw and the inside molars and premolars on the lower jaw.

Gingivitis: inflammation or redness at the edge of the gums. It is reversible if caught in time.

Periodontitis: infected gums and infections around the roots of the teeth. Your dog’s gums are very red and inflamed and begin to recede or pull away from where they normally should be. The “glue” that attaches the gums to the teeth disintegrates. Every time your dog chews, the bacteria goes deeper into the tissues and eventually goes into his bloodstream. As it progresses, your dog’s teeth begin to loosen, his gums become increasingly inflamed, and it is very painful. It is irreversible, and ultimately your dog’s teeth will need to be pulled.

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Doggie Dental Trauma

Dogs that have multiple worn or chipped teeth are, generally speaking, chewers. Types of trauma can include the tip being broken off, a slab fracture, and erosion of the enamel.

The tip of a tooth can be broken off, which is especially common in the canine or eyeteeth, and that can happen because the tooth has been hit or perhaps he has chewed a bone “the wrong way.”

A slab fracture is common on the very large upper premolar called the carnassial tooth. The enamel is broken along a large portion of the outer vertical surface of the tooth. It can come completely off, or it may be still attached at the top.

The incisors or front teeth may be worn down so that only a small portion of the tooth is visible. These teeth often have a brown center which was the pulp cavity. Because the wear on the tooth is gradual, the pulp tissue recedes ahead of the wear, and they usually don’t need to be removed.

If you see red in the center of the tooth, it is a freshly injured tooth, and a vet should examine your dog. Dogs show varying degrees of tolerance from no signs of trauma to reluctance to bite or chew when this happens. As the pulp dies, tooth sensitivity is lost. There may be no clinical signs until there is an abscess or the tooth falls out.

Another type of dental trauma occurs when dogs chew on chain link fences. The insides of the canine teeth wear down which predisposes them to fractures.

A tooth with a black center has had an acute injury and needs to be watched carefully for abscesses. If your dog has an abscessed tooth, he needs to be seen by a vet who may put your dog on antibiotics and/or remove that tooth to avoid further problems.

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Preventing Dental Problems for your Dog

The best way to prevent dental problems is to brush your dog’s teeth daily. The plaque turns to tartar in 48 hours, and you need to brush it away so it can’t turn to tartar. How much plaque and/or tartar develops depends on a lot of factors, one of which is your dog’s own body chemistry. Some dogs just naturally have clean teeth; others do not.

Other factors that influence the formation of tartar, including diet and dog chewies. But brushing is the key.

There are also gels and rinses on the market which may help in the prevention of tartar buildup. Always check with your veterinarian before using any products.

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Dog Chewies

* *WATCH YOUR DOG WHEN HE IS CHEWING ON ANYTHING.* *

Chewies massage your dog’s gums, and the abrasive action helps prevent tartar formation.

Some dog chewies are:

  • Bones (raw knuckle bones are best)
  • Doggie dental floss
  • Rawhides impregnated with dentifrices
  • Dental Kong, which is a soft rubber toy that massages your dog’s gums as he is chewing, and you can put broth or peanut butter in the grooves.

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Brushing Your Dog’s Teeth

First, go to a quiet area. Begin by gently stroking your dog’s body, eventually ending up at his head and mouth. Pick up your dog’s lips and look at his teeth – all his teeth. Run your finger along the gum line. Do this several times a day for a few days to get your dog used to your touching his mouth. The best time to do this is when both you and your dog are relaxed. Speak to him in a soft, reassuring voice, and give him lots of praise, love, and affection before, during, and after touching.

The next step is to let him sniff the doggie toothbrush or gauze and dog toothpaste.  If you choose to use toothpaste, don’t use human toothpaste or baking soda because they can have adverse effects on your dog’s digestive system. Use doggie toothpaste or just simply wet the toothbrush with either water or chicken broth, and place it on the canine teeth and work your way back. The incisors or the small teeth at the front of the mouth are very sensitive. Do those last.

Gently brush up from the lower canine teeth and down from the upper teeth, using lots of praise. Brush only a few teeth the first few times, and gradually increase the number of teeth you brush. Slowly make your way to the molars at the back of your dog’s mouth. Then do the other side of his mouth, always slowly and giving lots of praise. Finally, brush the front teeth. Brushing his entire mouth may take several days for him to get comfortable with.

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Dog Teeth Cleaning

There are two ways to have your dog’s teeth cleaned: through your veterinarian who uses an ultrasonic machine, and the second way is by using a hand scaler.

Ultrasonic cleaning with anesthesia

If you choose to have your vet clean your dog’s teeth using anesthesia and your dog is over six years old or has a preexisting medical condition concerning his heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, or immune system, he should have a blood panel run to determine that his internal organs are functioning properly before he undergoes anesthesia because the anesthesia is removed from his system through his lungs, liver, or kidneys.

Be sure to tell your vet about all drugs that your dog is currently taking and if he has had any adverse reactions to any previous drugs or anesthesia. Some dogs do not tolerate anesthesia well and may take several days to get back to normal.

If your dog is undergoing anesthesia, ask your vet

  • what kind of monitoring equipment he uses
  • if a person who is not cleaning the teeth will be monitoring the equipment
  • what kind of anesthesia is being used and how quickly it gets out of your dog’s system
  • whether he uses another drug to lose and induce consciousness
  • if there are any side effects

He should not get any food for 12 hours or water for 6 hours before cleaning because dogs can sometimes vomit when they are losing or gaining consciousness; and if his stomach is not empty, he can breath in the vomit and suffocate.

Hand scaling without anesthesia

I always recommend that whenever your dog is undergoing anesthesia for any reason, that you have his teeth cleaned. If your dog has any problems with his heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, immune system, or has diabetes, he may have to have antibiotics before and after the cleaning.

I did hand scaling for ten years and only performed it in a vet’s office. Teeth cleaning is considered a veterinary procedure in California which legally may only be performed in a veterinarian’s office. Please DO NOT call or email me for any further advice or information. If you have any questions, ask your veterinarian.

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I hope that this has given you an understanding that keeping your dog’s teeth clean and brushed is a vital and necessary part of his overall health and well-being. Remember, as with anything, habits don’t change overnight. Give yourself and your dog a chance.

I’ve used this product to help stop dog plaque from forming on my dog’s teeth, and it has helped my dogs. Be sure to read the instructions!

 

I’d love to hear what your comments are. What issues has your dog had with his teeth? How have you brushed his teeth? Please share your experiences or ask a question so we can all help each other.

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I’d love to hear what your comments are. What issues has your dog had with his teeth? How have you brushed his teeth? Please share your experiences with your dog or ask a question so we can begin a dialogue to help each other.

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Thanks for visiting Dog Dental Tips!

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Disclaimer: If you have any questions about your dog’s teeth, mouth, or gums, please call your veterinarian. This article and the products mentioned are for informational purposes only. They do not replace a consultation with a veterinarian and may not be used to diagnose or treat any conditions in your dog. If you have any questions about your dog’s teeth, mouth, or gums, please call your veterinarian. I cannot answer any questions, so please do not call me.

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